TheHyper-Quantum Boundary


<meta name=description content=Metaphysical existentialism, natural scientific law and materialist realism, evolutionary pathways>

🔰 §ection I — 🔰 §ection II🔰 §ection III🔰 §ection IV
🔰 §ection V🔰 §ection VI🔰 §ection VII

How to study this web page: (Optimized for small screens and specialized for med-large screens)

It is organized under 🔰 sections and articles 🎓 according to HTML5 semantic structure. Each section is indicated by the Japanese symbol for beginner 🔰 as the content is not intended to represent formal academic level work, but is a personal journaling of research in arts, sciences, natural and cultural history. The articles are indicated by the square academic cap 🎓, and each article is designed to lead into further studies of the topic explored. Most graphics and specialized words are highlighted for mouseover to read 'tooltip' text pertaining to the topic or image. Some text is highlighted using a yellow marker pen, but without a mouseover tooltip. As the page content is elaborate and often intensive, it is recommended to scroll through the entire page first to get a mental picture of its entirety, noting what may be of interest, before beginning to study the flow of details from beginning to end.

 Adjust Zoom for Common Browsers:  100% for IE11,   80% for Chrome & Opera,   80% for Edge & Firefox

🍎 Apple Rating System for Science Communication: 
🍎     Concise and Explicit Communication, 
🍎    Eloquent and Compelling  ''  ''
🍎🍎   Profound and Gratifying  ''  ''

List of primary installed system fonts used for this webpage (Web fonts are underlined):

Century SchoolbookCascadia CodeZilla SlabFutura MediumGabriolaAntique

Oleo ScriptCopperplateSource Code ProFonts are stored in fonts folder (see above).

This website is designed using Microsoft Internet Explorer 11 and Windows 8.1 notepad. All files and 'live' links are local. Only Javascript is used (minimally).

🔰 §ection I: The Quantum Revelation

Icons of Science

❝Absolute space, in its own nature, without regard to anything external, remains always similar and immovable. Relative space is some movable dimension or measure of the absolute spaces, which our senses determine by its position to bodies, and which is vulgarly taken for immovable space.❞
❝The description of right lines and circles, upon which geometry is founded, belongs to mechanics. Geometry does not teach us to draw these lines, but requires them to be drawn.❞
❝Gravity must be caused by an Agent acting constantly according to certain laws, but whether this Agent be material or immaterial I have left to the consideration of my readers.❞
—Isaac Newton 🍎🍎 🔭 (1743—1727) Mathematician, Physicist and Astrotheologist
pNewtonian_telescope

❝A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot penetrate, of the manifestations of the profoundest reason and the most radiant beauty —it is this knowledge and this emotion that constitute the truly religious attitude; in this sense, and in this alone, I am a deeply religious man.❞
❝People like us, who believe in physics, know that the distinction between past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion.❞
—Albert Einstein 🍎🍎 ⚛️ (1879—1955) Theoretical Physicist and Scientific Philosopher

❝…the scientific cast of mind examines the world critically, as if many alternative worlds might exist, as if other things might be here which are not. Then we are forced to ask why what we see is present, and not something else. Why are the Sun and moon and the planets spheres? Why not pyramids, or cubes, or dodecahedra? Why not irregular, jumbly shapes? Why so symmetrical, worlds? If you spend any time spinning hypotheses, checking to see whether they make sense, whether they conform to what else we know. Thinking of tests you can pose to substantiate or, deflate hypotheses, you will find yourself doing science.❞
—Carl Sagan 🍎 🔵 (1934—1996) Cosmologist, Astrophysicist and Astrobiologist
pFaint_young_Sun_paradox

❝I see no reason to believe that a creator of protoplasm or primeval matter, if such there be, has any reason to be interested in our insignificant race in a tiny corner of the universe, and still less in us, as still more insignificant individuals. Again, I see no reason why the belief that we are insignificant or fortuitous should lessen our faith.❞
—Rosalind Franklin 🍎 🔬 (1920—1958) Chemist and X-ray Crystallographer

❝Everything cannot be connected with everything in the world we live in.
Everything can be connected with anything.❞
❝The history of science is rich in example of the fruitfulness of bringing two sets of techniques, two sets of ideas, developed in separate contexts for the pursuit of new truth, into touch with one another.❞
❝It is a profound and necessary truth that the deep things in science are not found because they are useful; they are found because it was possible to find them.❞
—Robert Oppenheimer 🍎 🍄 (1904—1967) Theoretical Physicist and Professor


“Scientists are explorers. Philosophers are tourists.”
Richard Feynman, Theoretical Physicist

Metascience, Epistemology and Ontology
pMetascience
pEpistemology
pOntology
“Ontology is closely associated with Aristotle's question of 'being qua being': the question of what all entities in the widest sense have in common. … Many philosophers agree that there is an exclusive and exhaustive distinction between concrete objects and abstract objects. Some philosophers consider this to be the most general division of being. Examples of concrete objects include plants, human beings and planets while things like numbers, sets and propositions are abstract objects.” —wikipedia

📕 BIG HISTORY   Evolution of Things

Big History is an academic discipline which examines history from the Big Bang to the present. Big History resists specialization, and searches for universal patterns or trends. It examines long time frames using a multidisciplinary approach based on combining numerous disciplines from science and the humanities, and explores human existence in the context of this bigger picture. It integrates studies of the cosmos, Earth, life, and humanity using empirical evidence to explore cause-and-effect relations, and is taught at universities and primary and secondary schools often using web-based interactive presentations.” —wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_History


Other resources:

🌎 https://earth.google.com/web/

🌐 25 Strangest Sights on Google Earth
https://www.livescience.com/28828-10-strangest-sights-google-earth.html
https://www.scientificamerican.com/
🚀 Webb Launches to Study Universe in Infrared
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/webb-launch-10404.html
https://www.sciencenews.org/
https://www.newscientist.com/
https://physicstoday.scitation.org/
https://physicsworld.com/
https://royalsociety.org/

📓 https://www.britannica.com/

⚛️ https://www.phys.org/

🔭 https://www.stellarium.org/


An introduction to BIG picture thinking:
The Big Picture: From the Big Bang to the Meaning of Life - with Sean Carroll
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2JsKwyRFiYY

❝I think it's important that science just doesn't stay within narrow boundaries.❞
❝We tend to talk about the world in a myriad of ways - a microscopic world of elementary particles, a biological world of organisms and evolution, a social world of morality and meaning. But it's all the same underlying world. That's the underlying theme of 'The Big Picture.'❞
❝The arrow of time doesn't move forward forever. There's a phase in the history of the universe where you go from low entropy to high entropy. But then, once you reach the locally maximum entropy you can get to, there's no more arrow of time.❞
❝Someday, when the ultimate laws of physics are in our grasp, we may discover that the notion of time isn't actually essential.❞
—Sean M. Carroll 🍎 (1966—) Theoretical Physicist

Low Entropy ━━➤ High Entropy ━━➤ Low Entropy

Back to Top


🎓 🔭 📡 🔬 History of Comprehension of Material Form

the_squared_circle.png
(Fig. 01) the_squared_circle.png

The squared circle of alchemy, interplay of the four elements of matter symbolizing the philosopher's stone; the Magnum opus or Great Work. From ancient process philosophy and totemic structure.

platonic_solids.png
(Fig. 02) platonic_solids.png

The Platonic Solids
5th century BCE
No other regular polyhedra exist, so it seemed logical that nature was composed of these forms. Regular structure is found in the quarks composing the nucleon.

mysterium_cosmographicum_solar_system.jpg
(Fig. 03) cosmographicum

Kepler's Platonic solid model of the Solar System, from Mysterium Cosmographicum. Geocentrism and Heliocentrism gave way to the Bary-centric view of orbits among common centres of mass.

cyclic_hydrocarbons_cycloalkanes.png
(Fig. 04) cyclic_hydrocarbons

Dmitri Mendeleev organized chemical elements in a periodic table of increasing atomic weight, making sense of the known elements, as well as in understanding the internal structure of atoms.


Copernican principle
pCopernican_principle

Cosmological principle
pCosmological_principle


Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

❝Planets move in ellipses with the Sun at one focus.❞

❝Geometry is the archetype of the beauty of the world.❞
❝Where there is matter, there is geometry.❞
❝Geometry has two great treasures; one is the Theorem of Pythagoras; the other, the division of a line into extreme and mean ratio. The first we may compare to a measure of gold; the second we may name a precious jewel.❞
Philolaus and Pythagoreanism
pPhilolaus
When ships to sail the void between the stars have been built, there will step forth men to sail these ships.
[interstellar spaceflight]
❝We find, therefore, under this orderly arrangement, a wonderful symmetry in the universe, and a definite relation of harmony in the motion and magnitude of the orbs, of a kind that is not possible to obtain in any other way.❞
❝I measured the skies, now the shadows I measure, Sky-bound was the mind, earth-bound the body rests.❞
[Kepler's epitaph]
—Johannes Kepler 🍎 φ (1571—1630) Astronomer and Mathematician

a + b    a  def

   a   =  b  =   φ

Golden Ratio
pGolden_ratio


History of the Model of the Atom

  1. 🌑 Solid Sphere Model — 1803 Dalton
  2. 🍪 Plum Pudding Model — 1904 Thompson
  3. ⚛️ Nuclear Model — 1911 Rutherford
  4. 🍭 Planetary Model — 1913 Bohr
  5. ⚙ Quantum Model — 1926 Schrödinger

❝The elements which are the most widely diffused have small atomic weights.❞
❝If all the elements are arranged in the order of their atomic weights, a periodic repetition of properties is obtained. This is expressed by the law of periodicity.❞
—Dmitry Mendeleev 🍎(1834—1907) Chemist and Inventor

❝Radioactivity is shown to be accompanied by chemical changes in which new types of matter are being continually produced. … The conclusion is drawn that these chemical changes must be sub-atomic in character.❞
❝[From uranium] there are present at least two distinct types of radiation one that is very readily absorbed, which will be termed for convenience the α radiation, and the other of a more penetrative character, which will be termed the β radiation.❞
—Ernest Rutherford 🍎(1834—1907) Nuclear Physicist

❝Nothing exists until it is measured. The measurement we get when we measure something is not a property of the thing measured.❞
❝Everything we call real is made of things that cannot be regarded as real. Isolated material particles are abstractions, their properties being definable and observable only through their interaction with other systems.❞
❝Physics is the belief that a simple and consistent description of nature is possible. A physicist is just an atom's way of looking at itself.❞
❝In our description of nature the purpose is not to disclose the real essence of the phenomena but only to track down, so far as it is possible, relations between the manifold aspects of our experience.❞
❝The meaning of life consists in the fact that it makes no sense to say that life has no meaning.❞
—Niels Bohr 🍎🍎 (1885—1962) Theoretical Physicist and Scientific Philosopher

diag. 1
               _NRG_0 -> distance.
electron orbits |        _n=3
nucleus         v   _n=2/
       13.6 eV  n-1/ 
OO neutron m=0  o    o    o
proton +        electron -
m=1             m=0
                
Balmer transition, 
                electron jumps from orbit n = 3 
                to orbit n = 2, producing 
                a photon of red light at 
                1.89 eV, wavelength 656 nanometers.

Balmer series
pBalmer_series
Isotopes of hydrogen
pIsotopes_of_hydrogen


A photon checks into a hotel. The bellhop asks, “Can I help you with your luggage?” It replies, “I don’t have any. I’m traveling light.

Back to Top


🎓 The Universe Named Cosmos

“Order, Decency, Beauty”

“The earliest cosmological models of the Universe were developed by ancient Greek and Indian philosophers and were geocentric, placing Earth at the center.” —wikipedia

  • Age (within Lambda-CDM model): 13.799 ± 0.021 billion years
  • Diameter: Unknown. Diameter of the observable universe: 8.8×1026 m (28.5 Gpc or 93 Gly)
  • Mass (ordinary matter): At least 1053 kg
  • Average density (including the contribution from energy): 9.9 x 10−30 g/cm3
  • Average temperature: 2.72548 K
  • Main Contents:
    • Ordinary (baryonic) matter (4.9%)
    • Estimated 1.2 x 10²³ to 3.0 x 10²³ stars
    • Contains 1078 to 1082 atoms
    • Estimated 40 billion habitable planets in 2 trillion galaxies
    • Dark matter (26.8%)
    • Dark energy (68.3%)
  • Shape: Flat with a 0.4% margin of error

The universe so far observed and perceived is like a Klein bottle or 4D Möbius tube ​♲; it is defined theoretically and mathematically beyond what is defined optically and electromagnetically, but its full structure and composition is unknown. So far, it is measured as if only an inner surface with spacetime locked into the relativistic model on a 4D plane. There is no accepted 'other side', 'inside' or 'outside' of the universe; it is considered self-contained and without an edge or opposite surface. Its only accepted boundary condition is itself. The steady-state model is consistent with continuous observation of more distant and larger cosmic objects but neither gives the universe its objective form or a boundary.

The current model of the universe depends on a perfect parallel between 2 planes. Such is impossible in real nature. Any two parallel lines or planes will always have a slight converging or diverging aspect no matter how distant in time and space —as evidenced in the curvature of space. QM relies not on perfection of geometry, but on higher precision of imperfection aligned with nature's imperfection. Curvature may be positive, negative or zero (flat); the current known density, the ' critical density', is about 10-26 kg/m3; that's about 10 hydrogen atoms per meter cubed.

diag. 2
      ,-"~"-.
     /  ._.  \    Klein 
    :  /   \  :   Bottle           afterglow
    !  !    : !                    light pattern
    ;  !    ; ;                    375,000 years   
   /    \  / /                       _______________________
  /      \/ /                       /
 /       /`/        quantum      inflation
/       / /\        fluctuation   /          development of
|     .`-'  |             ⤵      /           galaxies, planets
|    .'.'   |          Δ→  ∿    ❇  dark ages 
|    : :    |         heat       \                    dark energy
|  ..: :..  |     wave-density    \                   accelerated
|.' .' `. '.|                   big bang expansion    expansion
`\ '     ` /'                       \_______________________
  `--___--'  mn                          1st stars
                                     400 million years    

Cosmic Evolution (Adapted from: 7 Stages in the Epic of Evolution)

  • ⇆ Particle Evolution ➡ Radiant Stage ​
  • ★ Stellar Evolution ➡ Atomic Stage ​
  • 🔃 ​Galactic Evolution ➡ Black Hole Formation 
  • ☼ Solar System Evolution ➡ Planetary Formation ​
  • ⌬ Chemical Stage ➡ Biological Evolution​
  • 👥 Cooperative Evolution ➡ Conscious Stage
  • ⚖ Cultural and Moral Evolution ➡ Technological Evolution 📡 Interplanetary Civil Stage

❝Not that chance dominated events in the early Solar System, for scientific determinism was also functioning. But chance is an essential factor in all evolutionary events, and the birth and development of our planetary system were not exceptions.❞
❝At every level in our inventory, nothing seems special about our Earth, our Sun, our Galaxy, our Local Group. Evidently, mediocrity reigns throughout. Such is our niche in the Universe.❞
❝Given enough time, even evolution evolves.❞
—Eric Chaisson (1946—) Astrophysicist
Cosmic Evolution: The Rise of Complexity in Nature (2001)


Cosmos: A Sketch of a Physical Description of the Universe (1845)
“Widely read by academics and laymen, Cosmos applies the ancient Greek view of the orderliness of the cosmos (the harmony of the universe) to the Earth, suggesting that universal laws apply as well to the apparent chaos of the terrestrial world and that contemplation of nature can yield an awareness of its wholeness and coherence.
Alexander von Humboldt, scientist and explorer.” —wikipedia

Back to Top


The Big Bang

Putting the 'bang' in the Big Bang
Physicists simulate critical 'reheating' period that kickstarted the Big Bang in the universe's first fractions of a second
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191025130414.htm

“The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model explaining the existence of the observable universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from an initial state of high density and temperature, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, and large-scale structure. … Crucially, the theory is compatible with Hubble–Lemaître law—the observation that the farther away a galaxy is, the faster it is moving away from Earth. Extrapolating this cosmic expansion backwards in time using the known laws of physics, the theory describes an increasingly concentrated cosmos preceded by a singularity in which space and time lose meaning.” —wikipedia


Bizarre Particles Keep Flying out of Antarctica's Ice, and They Might Shatter Modern Physics.
Cosmic rays emanating from the south polar ice cap could lead to new physics
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/bizarre-particles-keep-flying-out-of-antarcticas-ice-and-they-might-shatter-modern-physics/

A new way to look for gravitational waves
Technique is based on conversion of gravitational waves of high frequency into radio waves.
https://phys.org/news/2021-01-gravitational.html


Classical Physics | Boundary | Quantum Physics

Models on the boundary between classical and quantum mechanics
“The foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics can be investigated from various angles, depending on what one's deeper motivations are. In the early years of quantum mechanics, investigators were asking how this theory can relate to ‘reality’: what is it that really happens when a quantum process is observed?”
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsta.2014.0236

Drawing a line between quantum and classical world
“... it takes two to tangle. For example, think about two hands clapping regularly. What you can be sure of is that when the right hand is moving to the right, the left hand is moving to the left, and vice versa. But if you were asked to guess without listening or looking whether at some moment the right hand was moving to the right, or maybe to the left, you wouldn't know. But you would still know that whatever the right hand was doing at that time, the left hand would be doing the opposite. The ability to know for sure about a common property without knowing anything for sure about an individual property is the essence of perfect entanglement.”
https://phys.org/news/2015-07-line-quantum-classical-world.html


Schrödinger Equation
“Conceptually, the Schrödinger equation is the quantum counterpart of Newton's second law in classical mechanics. Given a set of known initial conditions, Newton's second law makes a mathematical prediction as to what path a given physical system will take over time. The Schrödinger equation gives the evolution over time of a wave function, the quantum-mechanical characterization of an isolated physical system.” —wikipedia
pSchr%C3%B6dinger_equation
Quantum Channel
“In quantum information theory, a quantum channel is a communication channel which can transmit quantum information, as well as classical information. An example of quantum information is the state of a qubit. An example of classical information is a text document transmitted over the Internet.” —wikipedia
pQuantum_channel

No-communication Theorem
“During measurement of an entangled quantum state, it is not possible for one observer, by making a measurement of a subsystem of the total state, to communicate information to another observer. The theorem is important because, in quantum mechanics, quantum entanglement is an effect by which certain widely separated events can be correlated in ways that suggest the possibility of communication faster-than-light. The no-communication theorem gives conditions under which such transfer of information between two observers is impossible.” —wikipedia
pQuantum_channel

Is the Schrödinger Equation True?
“Just because a mathematical formula works does not mean it reflects reality”
“But can you call a theory true if no one understands it? A century after inventing quantum mechanics, physicists still squabble over what, exactly, it tells us about reality. Consider the Schrödinger equation, which allows you to compute the “wave function” of an electron. The wave function, in turn, yields a “probability amplitude,” which, when squared, yields the likelihood that you’ll find the electron in a certain spot.”
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-the-schroedinger-equation-true1/

The Schrödinger Equation
http://www.its.caltech.edu/~chem1/
Lecture%20Notes%20pdfs/Series%203%20The%20Schrodinger%20Equatn.pdf

The Quantum Realm

╔════════════════╗ (H)amiltonian Operator
║    Hψ = Eψ     ║ (E)nergy
╚════════════════╝  ψ Wave Function

Planck's Equation E=hv NRG=Planck's Constant×
                           Frequency (NRG of photon)
                       (Relationship of light and NRG)
The Classical Realm

              E=KE+PE
Energy equals kinetic plus potential energy

Einstein's Equation E=MC² NRG=Mass×Lightspeed Squared
Newton's Equation F = ma  Force=Mass×Acceleration

Back to Top


🎓 Evolution From Tools to Symbols…

THE BIG W   below | above

“An ideogram or ideograph is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases. Some ideograms are comprehensible only by familiarity with prior convention; others convey their meaning through pictorial resemblance to a physical object, and thus may also be referred to as pictograms or pictographs.” —wikipedia"

seashell_engraving.png

(Fig. 05) seashell_engraving.png
euclid_elements.png

(Fig. 06) euclid_elements.png

The greatest change in comprehension of geometry from 📐 Euclid (300 BCE),  Descartes and ✺ Newton (1700 CE), is Einstein's confirmation that natural space is curved and what is effectively squared is light. There is no universal cosmic still point, so speed is only meaningful relative to something. This change added new perception and reasoning, dividing scientifically what is abstraction of nature from what is actual nature, and contributed to the advanced scientific engineering of the 20th century.


❝It is through science that we prove, but through intuition that we discover.❞

❝Science is built up of facts, as a house is with stones. But a collection of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones is a house.❞
❝To doubt everything, or, to believe everything, are two equally convenient solutions; both dispense with the necessity of reflection.❞
❝The scientist does not study nature because it is useful; he studies it because he delights in it, and he delights in it because it is beautiful.❞
❝If we knew exactly the laws of nature and the situation of the universe at the initial moment, we could predict exactly the situation of the same universe at a succeeding moment.❞
Absolute space, that is to say, the mark to which it would be necessary to refer the earth to know whether it really moves, has no objective existence.❞
Point set topology is a disease from which the human race will soon recover.❞
❝If one looks at the different problems of the integral calculus which arise naturally when one wishes to go deep into the different parts of physics, it is impossible not to be struck by the analogies existing.❞
❝It is far better to foresee even without certainty than not to foresee at all.❞
—Henri Poincaré 🍎 (1854—1912) Mathematician, Engineer, Theoretical Physicist and Scientific Philosopher


List of topologies
pList_of_topologies
Topological space
pTopological_space

🕒 Absolute Space and Time

“According to Newton, absolute time exists independently of any perceiver and progresses at a consistent pace throughout the universe. Unlike relative time, Newton believed absolute time was imperceptible and could only be understood mathematically. According to Newton, humans are only capable of perceiving relative time, which is a measurement of perceivable objects in motion (like the Moon or Sun). From these movements, we infer the passage of time.” —wikipedia

Celestial Mechanics
pCelestial_mechanics
Specific Angular Momentum
pSpecific_angular_momentum
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
pNewton%27s_law_of_universal_gravitation


F = G m1m2
      

“The concepts of space and time were separate in physical theory prior to the advent of special relativity theory, which connected the two and showed both to be dependent upon the reference frame's motion. In Einstein's theories, the ideas of absolute time and space were superseded by the notion of spacetime in special relativity, and curved spacetime in general relativity.” —wikipedia

“Absolute simultaneity refers to the concurrence of events in time at different locations in space in a manner agreed upon in all frames of reference. The theory of relativity does not have a concept of absolute time because there is a relativity of simultaneity. An event that is simultaneous with another event in one frame of reference may be in the past or future of that event in a different frame of reference, which negates absolute simultaneity.” —wikipedia


…To Energy and Information Equivalence

“According to special relativity, as the velocity of an object approaches the speed of light its inertial mass approaches infinity and so you cannot put in enough energy to produce any acceleration: the object now has an infinite tendency to keep going at the same speed.” —wikipedia

“—The speed > c < isn’t exclusive to the speed of light, but rather to the transmission of information. The velocity of 186,000 miles per second refers to an upper limit for the transmission of information regarding any interaction in nature. The speeds of light and gravity, therefore, travel at this peak speed that information is allowed to.” —scienceabc

“—In information theory thermodynamics, conservation of information refers to the hypothesis or argument that 'information' is physically equivalent to 'energy', or in some versions of the argument 'entropy', and that there exists a conservation law for information, analogous to the other conserved quantities, e.g. mass, charge, etc., of physics.” —hmolpedia

“Thus, at the most fundamental level if quantum
theory is correct then information is never lost.”


Teaching and complex tools 'evolved together'
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/11/201117192623.htm

Teaching ancient brains new tricks: New research shows how modern physicists think
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-10-ancient-brains-modern-physicists.html


Swinging on the Quantum Level
“After the first quantum revolution -- the development of devices such as lasers and the atomic clock -- the second quantum revolution is currently in full swing. Experts from all over the world are developing fundamentally new technologies based on quantum physics. One key application is quantum communication, where information is written and sent in light. For many applications making use of quantum effects, the light has to be in a certain state -- namely a single photon state.”
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/12/211221102742.htm

Quantum Technology
“Quantum computers are expected to have a number of important uses in computing fields such as optimization and machine learning. They are perhaps best known for their expected ability to carry out 'Shor's Algorithm', which can be used to factorise large numbers and is an important process in the securing of data transmissions. .”—wikipedia
pQuantum_technology

Back to Top


🎓 γ 🌌 λ  All is Quanta, Quanta is All

All particles in the universe have no definite states until they are measured. The quantum universe is one step removed from reality as we know, but at least we know, quantum reality is no delusion; it exists, and if we do not figure-out how to use it, it will use us. We also are particles, and so the quantum universe is not alien. When two particles interact, they become entangled on a quantum, sub-atomic level. On the deepest level of quantum reality all particles are entangled and have no independent probabilities.


Quantum
“In physics, a quantum (plural quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction. The fundamental notion that a physical property can be quantized is referred to as the hypothesis of quantization. This means that the magnitude of the physical property can take on only discrete values consisting of integer multiples of one quantum.

For example, a photon is a single quantum of light (or of any other form of electromagnetic radiation). Similarly, the energy of an electron bound within an atom is quantized and can exist only in certain discrete values. (Atoms and matter in general are stable because electrons can exist only at discrete energy levels within an atom.) Quantization is one of the foundations of the much broader physics of quantum mechanics. Quantization of energy and its influence on how energy and matter interact (quantum electrodynamics) is part of the fundamental framework for understanding and describing nature.”—wikipedia
pQuantum


🌐 Mathematics and Geometrics

mathematics_geometrics.png
(Fig. 07) mathematics_geometrics.png

As certain as point, plane, and cube must exist within a 4th physical dimension, so must exist a 5th physical dimension to give 4D somewhere to exist. Although 5D realism has been part of 20th century science, it is yet difficult to include in 4D models as it only qualifies as a mathematical abstraction — it is like an invisible canvas that modern science models are painted on.


Subatomics and Atomics

subatomics_atomics.png
(Fig. 08) subatomics_atomics.png

The human brain is a product of the animals it evolved from combined mostly of the structures and behaviors of chimpanzees back to ~5.7 MYA. Animals and their brains aren't naturally 'designed' to do math and physics effective to much technology above utilizing sticks and stones. Human science-engineering is as much an anomaly of observed nature as life on Earth is.


⚛️ Astrophysics and Biologics.png

astrophysics_biologics.png
(Fig. 09) astrophysics_biologics.png

Direct observation continues to unfold complexity of nature, but the brain observing is isolated in the framework of a hominid species, and among the massive data no evidence suggests similar folding of bio-organic chemicals ( abiogenesis) anywhere else in the universe. The universe is evidently as devoid of living material as Earth is brimming-over with it.


Data-driven videos animate folding technique RNA uses to fit inside cells
https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2021/01/15/Data-driven-videos-animate-folding-technique-RNA-uses-to-fit-inside-cells/8931610728210/

Moiré patterns facilitate discovery of novel insulating phases
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-moir233-patterns-discovery-insulating-phases.html

 ❏ Patterns in Nature

Patterns in Nature
pPatterns_in_nature

Mathematical and Theoretical Biology
pMathematical_and_theoretical_biology

History of Mathematics
pHistory_of_mathematics

“Mathematics is the language of nature.”
—Leonardo Fibonacci (1170 – 1240) Mathematician

A Mathematician Who Decodes the Patterns Stamped Out by Life
“Corina Tarnita deciphers bizarre patterns in the soil created by competing life-forms. She’s found that they can reveal whether an ecosystem is thriving or on the verge of collapse.”
https://www.quantamagazine.org/a-mathematician-who-decodes-the-patterns-stamped-out-by-life-20171220/


❝We must admit with humility that, while number is purely a product of our minds, space has a reality outside our minds, so that we cannot completely prescribe its properties a priori.❞
❝Arc, amplitude, and curvature sustain a similar relation to each other as time, motion, and velocity, or as volume, mass, and density.❞
❝I am coming more and more to the conviction that the necessity of our geometry cannot be demonstrated, at least neither by, nor for, the human intellect. . . Geometry should be ranked, not with arithmetic, which is purely aprioristic, but with mechanics.❞
—Carl Friedrich Gauss 🍎(1777—1855) Mathematician and Physicist
pGauss_(unit)

Back to Top


The Dynamic and Discrete Canvas of Nature

Combining the quantization of energy with the law of conservation of energy, the boundary of the universe is its total energy of all levels of matter. The universe itself is one quantum of energy. Giving each constituent object on each level of matter an hyperdimensional structure, a 5th physical dimension permeates spacetime within and beyond the boundary of the universe. Humans can comprehend quantum mechanics because the human brain can process 5D. Geometry of space and dimension is studied in point and vector coordinate systems which reflects the brain's own visual (neural) coordinate system.


Quantum Mechanics
“Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. It is the foundation of all quantum physics including quantum chemistry, quantum field theory, quantum technology, and quantum information science. Classical physics, the collection of theories that existed before the advent of quantum mechanics, describes many aspects of nature at an ordinary (macroscopic) scale, but is not sufficient for describing them at small (atomic and subatomic) scales. Most theories in classical physics can be derived from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid at large (macroscopic) scale. Quantum mechanics differs from classical physics in that energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other quantities of a bound system are restricted to discrete values (quantization), objects have characteristics of both particles and waves (wave-particle duality), and there are limits to how accurately the value of a physical quantity can be predicted prior to its measurement, given a complete set of initial conditions (the uncertainty principle).” —wikipedia
pQuantum_mechanics

Statistical Mechanics
“A mathematical framework that applies statistical methods and probability theory to large assemblies of microscopic entities. It does not assume or postulate any natural laws, but explains the macroscopic behavior of nature from the behavior of such ensembles. Statistical mechanics arose out of the development of classical thermodynamics, a field for which it was successful in explaining macroscopic physical properties—such as temperature, pressure, and heat capacity—in terms of microscopic parameters that fluctuate about average values and are characterized by probability distributions.” —wikipedia
pStatistical_mechanics


Go to Hamiltonian Mechanics: Time Evolution of the Wavefunction

Dynamical System
“A system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space. Examples include the mathematical models that describe the swinging of a clock pendulum, the flow of water in a pipe, and the number of fish each springtime in a lake. At any given time, a dynamical system has a state given by a tuple of real numbers (a vector) that can be represented by a point in an appropriate state space (a geometrical manifold). The evolution rule of the dynamical system is a function that describes what future states follow from the current state. Often the function is deterministic, that is, for a given time interval only one future state follows from the current state. However, some systems are stochastic, in that random events also affect the evolution of the state variables. …

The Hamiltonian is a function used to solve a problem of optimal control for a dynamical system. It can be understood as an instantaneous increment of the Lagrangian expression of the problem that is to be optimized over a certain time period. Inspired by, but distinct from, the Hamiltonian of classical mechanics, the Hamiltonian of optimal control theory was developed by Lev Pontryagin as part of his maximum principle.” —wikipedia
pDynamical_system

Stationary-action Principle
“Also known as the principle of least action – is a variational principle that, when applied to the action of a mechanical system, yields the equations of motion for that system. The principle states that the trajectories (i.e. the solutions of the equations of motion) are stationary points of the system's action functional. The term least action is a historical misnomer since the principle has no minimality requirement: the value of the action functional need not be minimal (even locally) on the trajectories. The principle can be used to derive Newtonian, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian equations of motion, and even general relativity (see Einstein–Hilbert action). In relativity, a different action must be minimized or maximized. …

The classical mechanics and electromagnetic expressions are a consequence of quantum mechanics. The stationary action method helped in the development of quantum mechanics. In 1933, the physicist Paul Dirac demonstrated how this principle can be used in quantum calculations by discerning the quantum mechanical underpinning of the principle in the quantum interference of amplitudes.” —wikipedia
pStationary-action_principle

What Is Classical Mechanics?
“The ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley all demonstrated an understanding of the motion of the sun, moon and stars; they could even predict the dates of eclipses by the 18th century B.C … Celestial mechanics thusly became the study of how things move about the heavens.”
https://www.livescience.com/47814-classical-mechanics.html

What Is Quantum Mechanics?
“The principles of quantization, wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle ushered in a new era for QM. In 1927, Paul Dirac applied a quantum understanding of electric and magnetic fields to give rise to the study of quantum field theory (QFT), which treated particles (such as photons and electrons) as excited states of an underlying physical field. Work in QFT continued for a decade until scientists hit a roadblock: Many equations in QFT stopped making physical sense because they produced results of infinity. After a decade of stagnation, Hans Bethe made a breakthrough in 1947 using a technique called " renormalization. Here, Bethe realized that all infinite results related to two phenomena (specifically electron self-energy and vacuum polarization") such that the observed values of electron mass and electron charge could be used to make all the infinities disappear.”
https://www.livescience.com/33816-quantum-mechanics-explanation.html

Back to Top


🎓 The Big Picture: Let There Be Quanta

big_picture.png

(Fig. 10) big_picture.png ( Order of Magnitude)

History of Packaging Quanta: The Semi-particle Photon lacks Mass and its Energy is Momentum

Quantum mechanics' history, as it interlaces with the history of quantum chemistry, began with a number of different scientific discoveries: the 1838 discovery of cathode rays by Michael Faraday; the 1859–60 winter statement of the black-body radiation problem by Gustav Kirchhoff; the 1877 suggestion by Ludwig Boltzmann that the energy states of a physical system could be discrete; the discovery of the photoelectric effect by Heinrich Hertz in 1887; and the 1900 quantum hypothesis by Max Planck that any energy-radiating atomic system can theoretically be divided into a number of discrete 'energy elements' ε (epsilon) such that each of these energy elements is proportional to the frequency ν with which each of them individually radiate energy, as defined by the following formula: (ε = h ν) where h is a numerical value called Planck's constant.“”” —wikipedia

—Then, Albert Einstein in 1905, in order to explain the photoelectric effect previously reported by Heinrich Hertz in 1887, postulated consistently with Max Planck's quantum hypothesis that light itself is made of individual quantum particles, which in 1926 came to be called photons by Gilbert N. Lewis. The photoelectric effect was observed upon shining light of particular wavelengths on certain materials, such as metals, which caused electrons to be ejected from those materials only if the light quantum energy was greater than the work function of the metal's surface.


❝Mechanics is the science of motion; its object may be stated to be to describe in the most complete and simple way the motion that takes place in nature.❞
❝Mechanics is a twin sister of geometry; both sciences are applications of pure mathematics; the propositions of both, as to their certainty, stand on the same level.❞
❝If we were acquainted with all the forces of nature and knew what is the state of matter at a certain moment of time, we should be able to deduce by means of mechanics its state at every subsequent moment.❞
—Gustav Kirchhoff 🍎(1824—1887) Physicist
pKirchhoff%27s_law_of_thermal_radiation

3d_universe_map_vacuum_bubble_condensation.jpg
(Fig. 11) 3d_universe_map_vacuum_bubble_condensation.jpg

The BOSE—aic Universe

“Einstein noted that Bose’s statistics applied to some atoms as well as to the proposed light particles, and submitted his translation of Bose’s paper to the Zeitschrift für Physik. Einstein described the model and its implications, among them the Bose–Einstein condensate phenomenon that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures. Bose–Einstein statistics are now used to describe the behaviors of any assembly of bosons.” —wikipedia

❝I have tried to deduce the coefficient 8π ν2/c3 in Planck's Law independent of classical electrodynamics, only assuming that the ultimate elementary region in the phase-space has the content h3. (from a letter to Albert Einstein)❞
—Satyendra Nath Bose 🍎 (1894—1974) Physicist and Mathematician.

❝It is, indeed an incredible fact that what the human mind,
at its deepest and most profound, perceives as beautiful finds its realization in external nature.
… What is intelligible is also beautiful.❞
❝Macroscopic objects, as we see them all around us, are governed by a variety of forces, derived from a variety of approximations to a variety of physical theories. In contrast, the only elements in the construction of black holes are our basic concepts of space and time. They are, thus, almost by definition, the most perfect macroscopic objects there are in the universe.❞
—Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar 🍎(1910—1995) Physicist, Astrophysicist and Mathematician.

❝The true laboratory is the mind, where behind illusions we uncover the laws of truth.❞
—Jagadish Chandra Bose 🍎(1858—1937) Physicist, Biologist and Botanist.

❝I cannot prove scientifically that Truth must be conceived as a Truth that is valid independent of humanity; but I believe it firmly. I believe, for instance, that the Pythagorean theorem in geometry states something that is approximately true, independent of the existence of man. Anyway, if there is a reality independent of man, there is also a Truth relative to this reality; and in the same way the negation of the first engenders a negation of the existence of the latter.❞ (Einstein in conversation with Rabindranath Tagore)
—Albert Einstein 🍎🍎(1879—1955) Theoretical Physicist and Scientific Philosopher.


“Pythagoras of Samos (c. 570 – c. 495 BC) was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism. His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graecia and influenced the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and, through them, Western philosophy. The teaching most securely identified with Pythagoras is metempsychosis, or the transmigration of souls, which holds that every soul is immortal and, upon death, enters into a new body. He may have also devised the doctrine of musica universalis, which holds that the planets move according to mathematical equations and thus resonate to produce an inaudible symphony of music. Scholars debate whether Pythagoras developed the numerological and musical teachings attributed to him, or if those teachings were developed by his later followers, particularly Philolaus of Croton.” —wikipedia


Einstein's Legacy: E=MC2 and Relativity

  1. Special Relativity involves electrodynamics and mechanics in spacetime in a planar sense.
  2. General Relativity includes gravity by adding curvature to spacetime.
  3. Simultaneity of Relativity takes a step toward determining as to whether two spatially separated events occuring at the same time, are either or not absolute, depending only on the observer's reference frame, or in a constant and accessible frame of time, especially in regard to distant spacetime.

Mass–Energy Equivalence
“In physics, mass–energy equivalence is the relationship between mass and energy in a system's rest frame, where the two values differ only by a constant and the units of measurement. The principle is described by the physicist Albert Einstein's famous formula: E=MC²” —wikipedia

If M=1 then the speed of light (186,000 miles per second) squared equals 34,596,000,000 (34.596 ✕ 109) units of NRG

Light obeys the equation c = fλ, where c = 3 × 108 m/s is the speed of light in vacuum, f is the frequency of the electromagnetic waves, and λ is its wavelength.

Scientific Notation
“Engineering notation (often named 'ENG' display mode on scientific calculators) differs from normalized scientific notation in that the exponent n is restricted to multiples of 3. Consequently, the absolute value of m is in the range 1 ≤ |m| < 1000, rather than 1 ≤ |m| < 10. Though similar in concept, engineering notation is rarely called scientific notation.” —wikipedia
pScientific_notation

➤ An Indian History of Numbers
A method of expressing every possible natural number using a set of ten symbols emerged in India.
https://www.nature.com/articles/459646a

0  1 2  3  4 5  6  7 8  9   Arabic, Latin
० १ २ ३ ४ ५ ६ ७ ८ ९   Devanagari, adapted from Brahmi
零 一 二 三 四 五 六 七 八 九  East Asia
ō  Α  Β  Γ Δ  Ε Ϛ  Ζ  Η  Θ  Modern Greek

Back to Top


Standard Model of Elementary Particles

Particle Zoo

“In particle physics, the term particle zoo is used colloquially to describe a relatively extensive list of the then known elementary particles by comparison to the variety of species in a zoo. In the history of particle physics, the situation was particularly confusing in the late 1960s. Before the discovery of quarks, hundreds of strongly interacting particles (hadrons) were known and believed to be distinct elementary particles in their own right. It was later discovered that they were not elementary particles, but rather composites of the quarks. The set of particles believed today to be elementary is known as the Standard Model and includes quarks, bosons and leptons. The term subnuclear zoo was coined or popularized by Robert Oppenheimer in 1956 at the VI Rochester International Conference on High Energy Physics.” —wikipedia

Standard Model
https://home.cern/science/physics/standard-model

diag. 3
                                                            Interactions/
       Elementary Fermions      Elementary Antifermions   | Force carriers
                                 A N T I M A T T E R      | Elementary Bosons
        | UP   CHARM  TOP      | antiUP antiCHARM antiTOP | GLUON      HIGGS
Quarks  | DOWN STRANGE BOTTOM  | antiDOWN antiSTRANGE ... | Scalar     Gauge 
        |______________________|__________________________| PHOTON    
        |                      |                          |
        | ELECTRON  MUON TAU   | POSITRON antiMUON antiTAU| ZoBOSON 
Leptons | electron  muon tau   | electron     muon        |
        |     NEUTRINOs        | antiNEUTRINO ... anti... | W+ BOSON  W- BOSON

Hadrons

“In particle physics, a hadron is a subatomic composite particle made of two or more quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force. Most of the mass of ordinary matter comes from two hadrons: the proton and the neutron. Hadrons are categorized into two families: baryons, made of an odd number of quarks – usually three quarks – and mesons, made of an even number of quarks – usually one quark and one antiquark. Protons and neutrons (which make the majority of the mass of an atom) are examples of baryons; pions are an example of a meson.” —wikipedia

Exotic matter

“Hypothetical particles and states of matter that have exotic physical properties that would violate known laws of physics, such as a particle having a negative mass. In theoretical physics, negative mass is a type of exotic matter whose mass is of opposite sign to the mass of normal matter, e.g. −1 kg. Such matter would violate one or more energy conditions and show some strange properties such as the oppositely oriented acceleration for negative mass. It is used in certain speculative hypothetical technologies, such as time travel to the past, construction of traversable artificial wormholes, which may also allow for time travel, Krasnikov tubes, the Alcubierre drive, and potentially other types of faster-than-light warp drives. Currently, the closest known real representative of such exotic matter is a region of negative pressure density produced by the Casimir effect. In quantum field theory, the is a physical force acting on the macroscopic boundaries of a confined space which arises from the quantum fluctuations of the field. It is named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir, who predicted the effect for electromagnetic systems in 1948.” —wikipedia

Dark matter

“Because dark matter has not yet been observed directly, if it exists, it must barely interact with ordinary baryonic matter and radiation, except through gravity. Most dark matter is thought to be non-baryonic in nature; it may be composed of some as-yet undiscovered subatomic particles. The primary candidate for dark matter is some new kind of elementary particle that has not yet been discovered, in particular, weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Although the existence of dark matter is generally accepted by the scientific community, some astrophysicists, intrigued by certain observations which are not well-explained by standard dark matter, argue for various modifications of the standard laws of general relativity, such as modified Newtonian dynamics, tensor–vector–scalar gravity, or Entropic Gravity. These models attempt to account for all observations without invoking supplemental non-baryonic matter. ” —wikipedia

➤ Hints of Dark Bosons
https://physics.aps.org/articles/v13/s115

➤ Physicists Propose New Theory on Origin of Dark Matter
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/new-theory-origin-dark-matter-08971.html
“The leading candidates include WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles) and axions.”


➤ Quantum Phenomenon in Two-Dimensional Insulator
http://www.sci-news.com/physics/quantum-oscillation-monolayer-tungsten-ditelluride-09239.html

➤ New state of matter in one-dimensional quantum gas
https://phys.org/news/2021-01-state-one-dimensional-quantum-gas.html

➤ Physicists Discover New State of Active Matter
http://www.sci-news.com/physics/swirlonic-state-09348.html

➤ Physicists discover the 'Kings and Queens of Quantumness'
https://www.livescience.com/quantifying-quantumness.html


Phase transition: States of Matter ➛ Solid ➛ Liquid ➛ Gas ➛ Plasma
pPhase_transition

Soft matter or soft condensed matter is a subfield of condensed matter
“…includes liquids, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, granular materials, liquid crystals, pillows, flesh, and a number of biological materials. These materials share an important common feature in that predominant physical behaviors occur at an energy scale comparable with room temperature thermal energy. At these temperatures, quantum aspects are generally unimportant.” —wikipedia
pSoft_matter

“The ability to reduce everything to simple fundamental laws does not imply the ability to start from those laws and reconstruct the universe.” —Philip W. Anderson (Theoretical Physicist)

Back to Top


Pursuit of the Subnuclear Model of Matter

As matter may be considered only the surfaces of energy levels, space can be considered only the timespan between any two points, and without time being constrained to lightspeed, energy and time are immediate, but what generates matter and space are yet unknowns. String theory and M-theory attempt a further level of material and spacial-dimensional reality. If one perceives no such things as matter and space, but both as form generated by energy quanta — particle and wave are unified as a 'quantum' of energy in motion ( Quantum Field Theory). Matter and antimatter are symmetrical as the photon is its own antiparticle. The universe is a surface of an energy level, similar to the sea of electrons.

The Planck Scale

“The term Planck scale refers to quantities of space, time, energy and other units that are similar in magnitude to corresponding Planck units. This region may be characterized by energies of around 1019 GeV, time intervals of around 10−43 s and lengths of around 10−35 m (approximately respectively the energy-equivalent of the Planck mass, the Planck time and the Planck length). At the Planck scale, the predictions of the Standard Model, quantum field theory and general relativity are not expected to apply, and quantum effects of gravity are expected to dominate. The best-known example is represented by the conditions in the first 10−43 seconds of our universe after the Big Bang, approximately 13.8 billion years ago.” —wikipedia

The four universal constants that, by definition, have a numeric value 1 when expressed in these units are:

  • the speed of light in a vacuum, c,
  • the gravitational constant, G,
  • the reduced Planck constant, ħ,
  • the Boltzmann constant, kB.

Planck units
pPlanck_units

The Planck length, denoted ℓP, is a unit of length in the system of Planck units that was originally proposed by physicist Max Planck, equal to 1.616255(18)×10−35 m. The Planck length can be defined from three fundamental physical constants: the speed of light, the Planck constant, and the gravitational constant. It is also the reduced Compton wavelength of a particle with Planck mass. Regardless of whether it represents some fundamental limit to the universe, it is a useful unit in theoretical physics.” —wikipedia


❝Again and again the imaginary plan on which one attempts to build up order breaks down and then we must try another. This imaginative vision and faith in the ultimate success are indispensable. The pure rationalist has no place here.❞
❝Science cannot solve the ultimate mystery of nature. And that is because, in the last analysis, we ourselves are part of nature and therefore part of the mystery that we are trying to solve. ❞
❝The fundamental principles and indispensable postulates of every genuinely productive science are not based on pure logic but rather on the metaphysical hypothesis–which no rules of logic can refute–that there exists an outer world which is entirely independent of ourselves. It is only through the immediate dictate of our consciousness that we know that this world exists. And that consciousness may to a certain degree be called a special sense.❞
The quantum hypothesis will eventually find its exact expression in certain equations which will be a more exact formulation of the law of causality.❞
—Max Planck 🍎🍎 (1858—1947) Theoretical Physicist.


E = hv

“A fundamental equation in quantum mechanics which states that the energy of a photon, E, known as photon energy, is proportional to its frequency, ν:. The constant of proportionality, h, is known as the Planck constant. The relation accounts for the quantized nature of light and plays a key role in understanding phenomena such as the photoelectric effect and black-body radiation (where the related Planck postulate can be used to derive Planck's law)” —wikipedia

Bohr's frequency condition: Sstates that the frequency of a photon absorbed or emitted during an electronic transition is related to the energy difference (ΔE) between the two energy levels involved in the transition:. This is a direct consequence of the Planck–Einstein relation.


ΔE = hv

Atomic Recoil
pAtomic_recoil
Abraham–Lorentz force
pAbraham–Lorentz_force

Atomic recoil was discovered by Harriet Brooks. She is most famous for her research on nuclear transmutations and radioactivity. Ernest Rutherford, who guided her graduate work, regarded her as comparable to Marie Curie in the calibre of her aptitude. She was among the first persons to discover radon and to try to determine its atomic mass.” —wikipedia

Photon Energy: “Is the energy carried by a single photon. The amount of energy is directly proportional to the photon's electromagnetic frequency and thus, equivalently, is inversely proportional to the wavelength. The higher the photon's frequency, the higher its energy. Equivalently, the longer the photon's wavelength, the lower its energy. Photon energy can be expressed using any unit of energy. Among the units commonly used to denote photon energy are the electronvolt (eV) and the joule. As one joule equals 6.24 × 1018 eV, the larger units may be more useful in denoting the energy of photons with higher frequency and higher energy, such as gamma rays, as opposed to lower energy photons, such as those in the radio frequency region of the electromagnetic spectrum.” —wikipedia


❝The most convincing proof of the conversion of heat into living force [vis viva] has been derived from my experiments with the electro-magnetic engine, a machine composed of magnets and bars of iron set in motion by an electrical battery. I have proved by actual experiment that, in exact proportion to the force with which this machine works, heat is abstracted from the electrical battery. You see, therefore, that living force may be converted into heat, and that heat may be converted into living force, or its equivalent attraction through space.❞
❝The earth in its rapid motion round the sun possesses a degree of living force so vast that, if turned into the equivalent of heat, its temperature would be rendered at least one thousand times greater than that of red-hot iron, and the globe on which we tread would in all probability be rendered equal in brightness to the sun itself.❞
❝The animal frame, though destined to fulfill so many other ends, is as a machine more perfect than the best contrived steam-engine—that is, is capable of more work with the same expenditure of fuel.❞
—James Prescott Joule 🍎 (1818—1889) Physicist and Mathematician

“Joule studied the nature of heat, and discovered its relationship to mechanical work. This led to the law of conservation of energy, which in turn led to the development of the first law of thermodynamics. The SI derived unit of energy, the joule, is named after him. He worked with Lord Kelvin to develop an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale, which came to be called the Kelvin scale. Joule also made observations of magnetostriction, and he found the relationship between the current through a resistor and the heat dissipated, which is also called Joule's first law.” —wikipedia

Back to Top


Gauge Theory

“Gauge theory, class of quantum field theory, a mathematical theory involving both quantum mechanics and Einstein’s special theory of relativity that is commonly used to describe subatomic particles and their associated wave fields. In a gauge theory there is a group of transformations of the field variables (gauge transformations) that leaves the basic physics of the quantum field unchanged. This condition, called gauge invariance, gives the theory a certain symmetry, which governs its equations.” —britannica

⚫ Lagrangian field theory
pLagrangian_(field_theory)
pIntroduction_to_gauge_theory

❝The best that most of us can hope to achieve in physics is simply to misunderstand at a deeper level.❞
❝What really matters for me is … the more active role of the observer in quantum physics … According to quantum physics the observer has indeed a new relation to the physical events around him in comparison with the classical observer, who is merely a spectator.❞
❝To us … the only acceptable point of view appears to be the one that recognizes both sides of reality-the quantitative and the qualitative, the physical and the psychical-as compatible with each other, and can embrace them simultaneously … It would be most satisfactory of all if physis and psyche (i.e., matter and mind) could be seen as complementary aspects of the same reality.❞
❝When one analyzes the pre-conscious step to concepts, one always finds ideas which consist of 'symbolic images.' The first step to thinking is a painted vision of these inner pictures whose origin cannot be reduced only and firstly to the sensual perception but which are produced by an 'instinct to imagining' and which are re-produced by different individuals independently, i.e. collectively… But the archaic image is also the necessary predisposition and the source of a scientific attitude. To a total recognition belong also those images out of which have grown the rational concepts.❞
—Wolfgang Pauli 🍎(1900—1958) Theoretical Physicist
pPauli_exclusion_principle

Spin-Control

Spin–statistics Theorem
pSpin%E2%80%93statistics_theorem

The theorem states that:

  • The wave function of a system of identical integer-spin particles has the same value when the positions of any two particles are swapped. Particles with wave functions symmetric under exchange are called bosons.
  • The wave function of a system of identical half-integer–spin particles changes sign when two particles are swapped. Particles with wave functions antisymmetric under exchange are called fermions.

“In other words, the spin–statistics theorem states that integer-spin particles are bosons, while half-integer–spin particles are fermions. The assumption (known as microcausality) that spacelike separated fields either commute or anticommute can be made only for relativistic theories with a time direction. Otherwise, the notion of being spacelike is meaningless. However, the proof involves looking at a Euclidean version of spacetime, in which the time direction is treated as a spatial one,” … Composite particles (such as hadrons, nuclei, and atoms) can be bosons or fermions depending on their constituents.” —wikipedia

Time Evolution

“The Schrödinger picture is a formulation of quantum mechanics in which the state vectors evolve in time, but the operators (observables and others) are constant with respect to time. This differs from the Heisenberg picture which keeps the states constant while the observables evolve in time, and from the interaction picture in which both the states and the observables evolve in time. The Schrödinger and Heisenberg pictures are related as active and passive transformations and commutation relations between operators are preserved in the passage between the two pictures.” —wikipedia


Quantum Foundations
pQuantum_foundations

diag. 4
           Hyperrealism
Local Realism ▬▶ ◀▬ Distant Realism
microreality         macroreality
quantum level       classical level 
 subatomic             atomic
simultaneous time   time dilation
 5D space              4D space
            3D space 
          Regular Time

Time in Physics
pTime_in_physics

Time Dilation
pTime_dilation

Quantum Nonlocality
pQuantum_nonlocality

Action at a Distance
“The concept that an object can be moved, changed, or otherwise affected without being physically touched (as in mechanical contact) by another object. That is, it is the non-local interaction of objects that are separated in space. This term was used most often in the context of early theories of gravity and electromagnetism to describe how an object responds to the influence of distant objects. More generally action at a distance describes the failure of early atomistic and mechanistic theories which sought to reduce all physical interaction to collision. The exploration and resolution of this problematic phenomenon led to significant developments in physics, from the concept of a field, to descriptions of quantum entanglement and the mediator particles of the Standard Model.” —wikipedia
pAction_at_a_distance


❝Atoms are not indivisible, for negatively electrified particles can be torn from them by the action of electrical forces.❞
❝If the modern conception of the atom is correct the barrier which separated physics from chemistry has been removed.❞
❝The contest [between the wave and particle theories of light] is something like one between a shark and a tiger, each is supreme in its own element but helpless in that of the other.❞
❝As the cathode rays carry a charge of negative electricity, are deflected by an electrostatic force as if they were negatively electrified, and are acted on by a magnetic force in just the way in which this force would act on a negatively electrified body moving along the path of these rays, I can see no escape from the conclusion that they are charges of negative electricity carried by particles of matter.❞
―Joseph John Thomson 🍎(1856—1940) Physicist (credited with the discovery of the electron, the first subatomic particle to be discovered.)

Mass Spectrometry
pMass_spectrometry


❝There was a long history of speculation that in quantum gravity, unlike Einstein's classical theory, it might be possible for the topology of spacetime to change.❞
—Edward Witten 🍎(1951—) Theoretical Physicist and Professor of Mathematical Physics
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M-theory

❝It seems hopelessly improbable that any particular rules accidentally led to the miracle of intelligent life. Nevertheless, this is exactly what most physicists have believed: intelligent life is a purely serendipitous consequence of physical principles that have nothing to do with our own existence.❞
—Leonard Susskind 🍎 (1940—) Theoretical Physicist Professor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holographic_principle

❝In relativity, movement is continuous, causally determinate and well defined, while in quantum mechanics it is discontinuous, not causally determinate and not well defined.❞
❝The universe and everything in it – including us – may, in fact, be part of a grand cosmic pattern where all portions are evenly shared by every other. The new form of insight can perhaps best be called Undivided Wholeness in Flowing Movement. “As above, so below” and “As within, so without,” patterns are contained within patterns, complete in and of themselves and different only in scale.”❞
―David Bohm 🍎(1917—1992) Theoretical Physicist

“Bohm advanced the view that quantum physics meant that the old Cartesian model of reality – that there are two kinds of substance, the mental and the physical, that somehow interact – was too limited. To complement it, he developed a mathematical and physical theory of implicate and explicate order. He also believed that the brain, at the cellular level, works according to the mathematics of some quantum effects, and postulated that thought is distributed and non-localised just as quantum entities are.” —wikipedia

︵‿︵︵‿︵‿︵~ ︵‿︵︵‿︵‿︵~

Ψ Wave Function

Wave function:, “In quantum mechanics, variable quantity that mathematically describes the wave characteristics of a particle. The value of the wave function of a particle at a given point of space and time is related to the likelihood of the particle’s being there at the time. By analogy with waves such as those of sound, a wave function, designated by the Greek letter psi, Ψ, may be thought of as an expression for the amplitude of the particle wave (or de Broglie wave), although for such waves amplitude has no physical significance. The square of the wave function, Ψ2, however, does have physical significance: the probability of finding the particle described by a specific wave function Ψ at a given point and time is proportional to the value of Ψ2.” —britannica

Matter Wave
“Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality. All matter exhibits wave-like behavior. For example, a beam of electrons can be diffracted just like a beam of light or a water wave.

… Particle physics tends to treat all forces by particle-particle interaction causing Richard Feynman to say that there are no waves just particles. And recently, there have been some theories that try to explain the Interpretations of quantum mechanics which try to resolve whether either the particle or the wave aspect is fundamental in nature, seeking to explain the other as an emergent property. Some interpretations, such as hidden variable theory, treat the wave and the particle as distinct entities. Yet others propose some intermediate entity that is neither quite wave nor quite particle but only appears as such when we measure one or the other property.” —wikipedia
pMatter_wave

Back to Top


Quantum Neuroscience

“The mind seems to contain everything at once in a timeless and placeless interconnectedness. The information is not encoded in a medium but is stored non-locally as wave functions in nonlocal space, which also means that all information is always and everywhere immediately available.”
—Pim van Lommel, Cardiologist


That the human brain in dream states generates a potentially infinite number of alternate storylines from bits and pieces of memory is itself a phenomenon of nature in which reality is not conditioned upon actual material and physical events and objects, but on 'information' processing at least as biology reflects the universe. Dreams are as equivalent in form as many delusions which may derive from neurochemical illness and/or drugs and alcohol, and so represent a differential between rational and irrational processing the same as between imaginary and practical processing of reality. The human brain is specialized for balancing its animal biological structure with its human mental and social environment, but not to a degree that human conflicts are reduced to a balance between nature and humankind. In other words, although the evolution of the human brain is a masterpiece of conflict resolution, the human being as a behavioral animal is not necessarily so.

Dream
pDream

Neural oscillation
pNeural_oscillation

Lateralization of brain function
pLateralization_of_brain_function

Quantum mechanics in the brain
https://www.nature.com/articles/440611a

Computational Neuroscience
pComputational_neuroscience

Quantum brain dynamics
pQuantum_brain_dynamics

A New Spin on the Quantum Brain
A new theory explains how fragile quantum states may be able to exist for hours or even days in our warm, wet brain. Experiments should soon test the idea.
https://www.quantamagazine.org/a-new-spin-on-the-quantum-brain-20161102/

A Jewel at the Heart of Quantum Physics
Physicists have discovered a jewel-shaped geometric object that challenges the notion that space and time are fundamental constituents of nature.
https://www.quantamagazine.org/physicists-discover-geometry-underlying-particle-physics-20130917/


Quantum Alchemy

Psychology, so dedicated to awakening human consciousness, needs to wake itself up to one of the most ancient human truths: we cannot be studied or cured apart from the planet.
( Alchemical) Vessels expose the invisible Zeitgeist, the visible formed by the invisible.
(Alchemical Psychology)
—James Hillman, psychologist

Deciphering the Philosophers' Stone: How we cracked a 400-year-old alchemical cipher
https://phys.org/news/2021-10-deciphering-philosophers-stone-year-old-alchemical.html

Alchemy Arrives in a Burst of Light
Researchers have shown how to effectively transform
one material into another using a finely shaped laser pulse.
https://www.quantamagazine.org/alchemy-arrives-in-a-burst-of-laser-light-20200930/

leviathan_alchemy_sulfur_lorraine.png The Alchemical symbol for sulfur, one of the 3 essential substances, salt, mercury and sulfur (Brimstone), is also known as the Leviathan Cross and satan's cross which includes the symbol of the infinite. , bearing a resemblence to the Cross of Lorraine or the Patriarchal Cross. Alchemical drawings often portray Sulfur as the sun. The Leviathan Cross was created by The Knights Templar.

The Reality Show
Schizophrenics used to see demons and spirits. Now they talk about actors and hidden cameras – and make a lot of sense
https://aeon.co/essays/a-culture-of-hyper-reality-made-paranoid-delusions-true

Reciprocals, Infitesimals, Derivatives, Integrals and Differentials

One may understand concepts of math as geometry in motion as it is that any human being and their brain is by nature doing math with or without the human being being a mathematician or otherwise conscious of the complex calculations the brain is doing as a naturally evolved processor of reality. Humans do not become mathematicians because they are doing anything their brain is not naturally capable of doing, but rather they become mathematicians because they are utilizing their brain's natural capacity of information processing.

“Multiplying a number is the same as dividing its reciprocal and vice versa. For example, multiplication by 4/5 (or 0.8) will give the same result as division by 5/4 (or 1.25). Therefore, multiplication by a number followed by multiplication of its reciprocal yields the original number (since their product is 1). The term reciprocal was in common use at least as far back as the third edition of Encyclopædia Britannica (1797) to describe two numbers whose product is 1; geometrical quantities in inverse proportion are described as reciprocall in a 1570 translation of Euclid's Elements.” –wikipedia

“Infinitesimals are a basic ingredient in calculus as developed by Leibniz, including the law of continuity and the transcendental law of homogeneity. In common speech, an infinitesimal object is an object that is smaller than any feasible measurement, but not zero in size—or, so small that it cannot be distinguished from zero by any available means. Hence, when used as an adjective in mathematics, infinitesimal means infinitely small, smaller than any standard real number. Infinitesimals are often compared to other infinitesimals of similar size, as in examining the derivative of a function. An infinite number infinitesimals are summed to calculate an integral.” —wikipedia

“The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value). Derivatives are a fundamental tool of calculus. For example, the derivative of the position of a moving object with respect to time is the object's velocity: this measures how quickly the position of the object changes when time advances.” —wikipedia

“An integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that describes displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data. The process of finding integrals is called integration. Along with differentiation, integration is a fundamental, essential operation of calculus, and serves as a tool to solve problems in mathematics and physics involving the area of an arbitrary shape, the length of a curve, and the volume of a solid, among others.” —wikipedia

“The primary objects of study in differential calculus are the derivative of a function, related notions such as the differential, and their applications. The derivative of a function at a chosen input value describes the rate of change of the function near that input value. The process of finding a derivative is called differentiation. Geometrically, the derivative at a point is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of the function at that point, provided that the derivative exists and is defined at that point. For a real-valued function of a single real variable, the derivative of a function at a point generally determines the best linear approximation to the function at that point.” —wikipedia

Boundary Condition: a condition which a quantity that varies throughout a given space or enclosure must fulfill at every point on the boundary of that space. —merriam webster.

diag. 5
          ......
       :::::::::::  ◀━━━━━━ 
    :+:         :+:       Boundary
  +:+            +:+      value given
 +#+              +:+     along the
+#+              +#+ ◀━━━━ Boundary Curve  
#+#          +#+#+      
 ###########+              
       Region governed by a
       Differential Equation

Five-dimensional Space
“Much of the early work on five-dimensional space was in an attempt to develop a theory that unifies the four fundamental interactions in nature: strong and weak nuclear forces, gravity and electromagnetism. … The fifth dimension is difficult to directly observe, though the Large Hadron Collider provides an opportunity to record indirect evidence of its existence. Physicists theorize that collisions of subatomic particles in turn produce new particles as a result of the collision, including a graviton that escapes from the fourth dimension, or brane, leaking off into a five-dimensional bulk.” —wikipedia
pFive-dimensional_space

The Cosmic Egg

A universal equation for the shape of an egg
“The shape has been highly regarded for its evolution as large enough to incubate an embryo, small enough to exit the body in the most efficient way, not roll away once laid, is structurally sound enough to bear weight and be the beginning of life for so many species. The egg has been called the perfect shape.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/08/210827133748.htm

Physics beyond the Standard Model
pPhysics_beyond_the_Standard_Model

Have we detected dark energy? Scientists say it's a possibility
The researchers used their model to show what would happen in the detector if the dark energy was produced in a particular region of the Sun, called the tachocline, where the magnetic fields are particularly strong.
https://phys.org/news/2021-09-dark-energy-scientists-possibility.html

Back to Top


🎓 Scale of the Intricate Web of Nature

first_photographs_intricacies_structures_nature.jpg

(Fig. 12) first_photographs_intricacies_structures_nature.jpg

Natural science
pNatural_science

  1. Robert Hook first compound microscope cork cell 1700
  2. First photo of Earth from space 1946
  3. First x-ray diffraction double helix DNA Rosalind Franklin 1952
  4. Hydrogen atom orbital wave function 2013
  5. First image of hydrogen chemical bond 2013
  6. Cell membrane nanoscale microscopy 2017
  7. First image inside solar atmosphere 2018
  8. first image of black hole 2019
  9. First x-ray map of universe 2020
  10. First image Bell photon quantum entanglement 2019
first_image_bell_quantum_entanglement.jpg

(Fig. 13) first_image_bell_quantum_entanglement.jpg

Movement, Momentum and Laws of Motion
motion_particles_waves.jpg
(Fig. 14) motion_particles_waves.jpg

Scientific law
pScientific_law

  1. Random Static 1% Cosmic Microwave Background
  2. Brownian Motion (Random Diffusion)
  3. Spherical Bacteria (Tropism)
  4. Dancing Bees (Instinct, Pheromonal, Sign Stimulus)
  5. Longitudinal and Transverse Wave Motion
  6. Charged Particle Motion
  1. In an inertial frame of reference, an object either remains at rest or continues to move at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by a force.
  2. In an inertial frame of reference, the vector sum of the forces F on an object is equal to the mass m of that object multiplied by the acceleration a of the object: F = ma.
  3. When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first body.

Link to Local File: media_player_classic.png cosmic_microwave_background_100_seconds.wav

❝These motions were such as to satisfy me, after frequently repeated observation, that they arose neither from currents in the fluid, nor from its gradual evaporation, but belonged to the particle itself.❞
—Robert Brown 🍎(1773—1858) Botanist and Palaeobotanist.

❝To any action there is always an opposite and equal reaction; in other words, the actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal and always opposite in direction.❞
❝Every body perseveres in its state of being at rest or of moving uniformly straight forward, except insofar as it is compelled to change its state by forces impressed.❞
—Isaac Newton 🍎🍎 🔭 (1743—1727) Mathematician, Physicist and Astrotheologist
pClassical_mechanics

Researchers crack Newton's elusive three-body problem
https://phys.org/news/2019-12-newton-elusive-three-body-problem.html
pThree-body_problem

New study sheds light on molecular motion
https://phys.org/news/2021-10-molecular-motion.html


Kinetic theory of gases

“The kinetic theory of gases is a simple, historically significant model of the thermodynamic behavior of gases, with which many principal concepts of thermodynamics were established. The model describes a gas as a large number of identical submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant, rapid, random motion. Their size is assumed to be much smaller than the average distance between the particles. The particles undergo random elastic collisions between themselves and with the enclosing walls of the container. The basic version of the model describes the ideal gas, and considers no other interactions between the particles. The kinetic theory of gases explains the macroscopic properties of gases, such as volume, pressure, and temperature, as well as transport properties such as viscosity, thermal conductivity and mass diffusivity. The model also accounts for related phenomena, such as Brownian motion.” —wikipedia

“Avogadro's law states that equal volumes of all gases, at the same temperature and pressure, have the same number of molecules.”

Back to Top


Electrodynamics
pCategory:Electrodynamics

“Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electric fields and magnetic fields, and it is responsible for electromagnetic radiation such as light. It is one of the four fundamental interactions (commonly called forces) in nature, together with the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and gravitation. At high energy the weak force and electromagnetic force are unified as a single electroweak force.” —wikipedia

Fundamental Interactions

  1. Strong interaction: Interaction that holds the nucleus together.
  2. Weak interaction: Responsible for radioactive decay.
  3. Electromagnetic: Interaction between electrically charged bodies.
  4. Gravitation: Interaction between objects which have mass.

Circular Polarization and Polarization Spectroscopy
pCircular_polarization
pPolarization_spectroscopy

❝The term relativity refers to time and space. According to Galileo and Newton, time and space were absolute entities, and the moving systems of the universe were dependent on this absolute time and space.❞
❝While now we know that time and space are not the vessel for the universe, but could not exist at all if there were no contents, namely, no sun, earth and other celestial bodies.❞
❝Let there be in every material particle several material points charged with electricity, of which, however, only one be movable, and have the charge e and the mass μ.
—Hendrik Lorentz 🍎 (1853—1928) Physicist


Quantum Electrodynamics
pQuantum_electrodynamics

The key components of Feynman's presentation of QED are three basic actions:

  1. A photon goes from one place and time to another place and time.
  2. An electron goes from one place and time to another place and time.
  3. An electron emits or absorbs a photon at a certain place and time.

Induced Radioactivity

“Induced radioactivity, also called artificial radioactivity or man-made radioactivity, is the process of using radiation to make a previously stable material radioactive. Neutron activation is the main form of induced radioactivity. It occurs when an atomic nucleus captures one or more free neutrons. This new, heavier isotope may be either stable or unstable (radioactive), depending on the chemical element involved. Because neutrons disintegrate within minutes outside of an atomic nucleus, free neutrons can be obtained only from nuclear decay, nuclear reaction, and high-energy interaction, such as cosmic radiation or particle accelerator emissions. Neutrons that have been slowed through a neutron moderator (thermal neutrons) are more likely to be captured by nuclei than fast neutrons. A less common form of induced radioactivity results from removing a neutron by photodisintegration. In this reaction, a high energy photon (a gamma ray) strikes a nucleus with an energy greater than the binding energy of the nucleus, which releases a neutron.” —wikipedia

❝There are two possible outcomes: if the result confirms the hypothesis, then you've made a measurement. If the result is contrary to the hypothesis, then you've made a discovery.❞
❝The fundamental point in fabricating a chain reacting machine is of course to see to it that each fission produces a certain number of neutrons and some of these neutrons will again produce fission.❞
—Enrico Fermi 🍎 (1901—1954) Theoretical and Experimental Physicist.

❝The study of the radioactive elements is in some respects far more important than the study of the ordinary stable elements, for the phenomena observed lead at once to the necessity of an atomic structure of matter and supply convincing proof of the individual existence of atoms.❞
❝Radioactive changes are quite different from ordinary chemical changes, for they deal with the disruption of the atom while chemical changes deal with the dissociation of molecules into atoms and the modes of combination of the atoms.❞
❝Since the atom, as a whole, is neutral, there must be a positive charge associated with the atom equal in amount to the sum of the negative charges. The electrical forces between the positive and negative charges preserve the equilibrium of the atom.❞
—James Chadwick 🍎 (1891—1974) Physicist (Discovery of the Neutron)


“In a talk given in 1884, Lord Kelvin estimated the number of dark bodies in the Milky Way from the observed velocity dispersion of the stars orbiting around the center of the galaxy. By using these measurements, he estimated the mass of the galaxy, which he determined is different from the mass of visible stars. Lord Kelvin thus concluded…” —wikipedia

…many of our stars, perhaps a great majority of them, may be dark bodies. (dark matter)
❝Considering it as thus established, that heat is not a substance, but a dynamical form of mechanical effect, we perceive that there must be an equivalence between mechanical work and heat, as between cause and effect.❞
❝Work done on any system of bodies (in Newton’s statement, the parts of any machine) has its equivalent in work done against friction, molecular forces, or gravity, if there be no acceleration; but if there be acceleration, part of the work is expended in overcoming the resistance to acceleration, and the additional kinetic energy developed is equivalent to the work so spent.❞
—Baron William Thomson Kelvin 🍎 (1824—1907) Mathematical Physicist and Engineer.


Dark Matter
is called dark because it does not appear to interact with the electromagnetic field, which means it does not absorb, reflect or emit electromagnetic radiation, and is therefore difficult to detect. Dark matter produces an attractive force (gravity), while dark energy produces a repulsive force (antigravity). Together, they make up 96 percent of the universe—and we can't see either. Astronomers know dark matter exists because visible matter doesn't have enough gravitational muster to hold galaxies together.” —wikipedia

Back to Top


🎓 Subject and Object Interference

positron.png
(Fig. 15) positron.png

Where Quantum Information Theory somewhat avoids the Standard Model of Particles in that objects such as Neutrinos are not the same as objects such as Qubits, the connection between the objects is derived from particle dynamics of spin, rotation and momentum, or Quantum state. The boundary of reality is smudged between the material and physical. Qubits are not objects that can be smashed out of some protons, but are more closely related to massless photons that must travel at the speed of light. Photon entanglement so far provides the only evidence of semi-material-physical connection in the medium of quantum mechanical operation.

interference_diffusion_diffraction.jpg
(Fig. 16) interference_
diffusion_diffraction.jpg

Development of quantum computing is limited by interference, but operable if all interference could be removed. Its impossible to test in a perfect vacuum at absolute zero, but if it could be done, would a universe of constant quantum information processing exist at superluminous speed? Whatever exists 'there' is evidently operating not so much on wave-particle duality and superposition, but on function between subject and object. eg. an apple is a fruit 🍎, a real material object, but it is also a subject requiring a definition, it is round and red . Quantum mechanics is as much about subject as it is about object. The greatest interference seems to be the breakdown combined of uncertainty — a diffusion of probability (the subject), and incompleteness — a diffraction of photons (the object) carrying electromagnetic force.

❝It seems to me that we must make a distinction between what is objective and what is measurable in discussing the question of physical reality, according to quantum mechanics. The state-vector of a system is, indeed, not measurable, in the sense that one cannot ascertain, by experiments performed on the system, precisely (up to proportionality) what the state is; but the state-vector does seem to be (again up to proportionality) a completely objective property of the system, being completely characterized by the results it must give to experiments that one might perform❞
—Roger Penrose 🍎 (1931—) Mathematical Physicist, Mathematician and Philosopher of Science

⚫ New Quantum Physics Experiment Suggests Objective Reality Doesn’t Exist
https://www.bizsiziz.com/new-quantum-physics-experiment-suggests-objective-reality-doesnt-exist/

⚫ Researcher shows physics suggests life could exist in a 2-D universe
https://phys.org/news/2019-06-physics-life-d-universe.html

❝No-one has ever been able to define the difference between interference and diffraction satisfactorily. It is just a question of usage, and there is no specific, important physical difference between them. The best we can do, roughly speaking, is to say that when there are only a few sources, say two, interfering, then the result is usually called interference, but if there is a large number of them, it seems that the word diffraction is more often used.❞
—Richard Feynman 🍎(1918—1988) Theoretical Physicist


Engineering researchers visualize the motion of vortices in superfluid turbulence
Nobel laureate in physics Richard Feynman once described turbulence as the most important unsolved problem of classical physics.
https://phys.org/news/2021-04-visualize-motion-vortices-superfluid-turbulence.html

Anomalous Diffusion
“A diffusion process with a non-linear relationship between the mean squared displacement (MSD) and time. This behavior is in stark contrast to Brownian motion, the typical diffusion process described by Einstein and Smoluchowski, where the MSD is a linear in time. Recently, anomalous diffusion was found in several systems including ultra-cold atoms, scalar mixing in the interstellar medium, telomeres in the nucleus of cells, ion channels in the plasma membrane, colloidal particle in the cytoplasm, moisture transport in cement-based materials, and worm-like micellar solutions. Anomalous diffusion was also found in other biological systems, including heartbeat intervals and in DNA sequences.”
pAnomalous_diffusion

Back to Top


🎓 Before the Photon Epoch, there were Antiphotons

light_cone.png

(Fig. 17) light_cone.png

The light cone can be spun around into a torus, giving the full 4D model of the universe's form and function as a whole object. The universe is still undefined as an 'object' itself like galaxies, stars and planets. The curvature of Earth provided opportunity for conquest; for a few scientists it provided opportunity to advance knowledge. The curvature of spacetime yet conquers humanity as science yet probes the curves of nature. A radical new physics would change the world in ways not yet foreseeable, but would be as major a transition as between ancient agrarian civilization and modern industrial civilization.

The Three Models of the Universe: Closed, Open, Flat

torus_homology_cohomology.png
(Fig. 18) torus_homology_
cohomology.png

The absolute present exists eternally, but eternity is always in motion and energy transformation. The future reflects the past and the past reflects the future, but the present is constant. The material universe is contained on the surface of a 4D bubble which either begins as a vacuum or a singularity expanding from a point in infinite velocity and mass. 5D is both topological and intrinsic to the universe and is not constrained by time as events are within 4D where no point in spacetime is isolated ( dilated) from all other spacetime locations from the 5D point of view.

The universe can be reduced in dimensions down to, plane, line, and point — as in the singularity, and then into Negative-dimensional space which is a logical mathematical expansion of spaces, demonstrating that the human brain is specialized in spinning, rotating and morphing reality around every possible inflection and direction the universe may exhibit.

Three-torus model of the universe


❝Henceforth space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality.❞
pMinkowski_space
—Hermann Minkowski 🍎(1864—1909) Mathematician and Mathematical Physicist.

Algebraic topology
pAlgebraic_topology


Baryon Asymmetry

Axiogenesis
Axions Could Explain Baryon Asymmetry
https://physics.aps.org/articles/v13/s38

➤ Missing baryons found in far-out reaches of galactic halos
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/03/210317141657.htm

➤ Why solar axions cannot explain the observed XENON1T excess
https://phys.org/news/2020-11-solar-axions-xenon1t-excess.html


“Quantum uncertainty causes the universe and antiuniverse to not be exact mirror images of each other.” In the nuclear force, the weak force breaks parity with the strong force ( Hierarchy problem). If there were perfect symmetry the universe would not exist — matter and anti-matter would cancel each-other out.

“Dark matter produces an attractive force (gravity), while dark energy produces a repulsive force (antigravity).” Fundamental forces are by definition not the result of any preceding force, except in the evolution of the universe, these forces unfold in a sequence beginning with gravity. The 'order of events' is critical in solving the great puzzles in physics and cosmology the same as in chemistry and biology. The best explanation so far of what is an essential motivator before everything so far known is Quantum Fluctuation.

Primordial Fluctuations

Primordial fluctuations are density variations in the early universe which are considered the seeds of all structure in the universe. Currently, the most widely accepted explanation for their origin is in the context of cosmic inflation. According to the inflationary paradigm, the exponential growth of the scale factor during inflation caused quantum fluctuations of the inflation field to be stretched to macroscopic scales, and, upon leaving the horizon, to freeze in. At the later stages of radiation- and matter-domination, these fluctuations re-entered the horizon, and thus set the initial conditions for structure formation. … In physical cosmology, cosmological perturbation theory is the theory by which the evolution of structure is understood in the Big Bang model. It uses general relativity to compute the gravitational forces causing small perturbations to grow and eventually seed the formation of stars, quasars, galaxies and clusters. It only applies to situations in which the universe is predominantly homogeneous, such as during cosmic inflation and large parts of the Big Bang. ” —wikipedia

The foamy substance fluctuating is like undulating amoebas in some background field where uncertainty only has a very small time-frame within or before the Planck Epoch, and in-between, particles fade-in and out like the ' Quantum Cheshire Cat'. So far, Quantum physics does not resolve much of the problems of Classic physics, but both are equally more-so theoretical constructs, and a new physics may synthesize both into a richer resolution of reality, advancing science-engineering capabilities in the real world.


“What we observe is not nature itself, but nature exposed to our method of questioning”

❝It is true that in quantum theory we cannot rely on strict causality. But by repeating the experiments many times, we can finally derive from the observations statistical distributions, and by repeating such series of experiments, we can arrive at objective statements concerning these distributions.❞
❝Although the theory of relativity makes the greatest of demands on the ability for abstract thought, still it fulfills the traditional requirements of science insofar as it permits a division of the world into subject and object (observer and observed) and, hence, a clear formulation of the law of causality.❞
❝It is seen that both matter and radiation possess a remarkable duality of character, as they sometimes exhibit the properties of waves, at other times those of particles. Now, it is obvious that a thing cannot be a form of wave motion and composed of particles at the same time - the two concepts are too different.❞
❝The uncertainty principle refers to the degree of indeterminateness in the possible present knowledge of the simultaneous values of various quantities with which the quantum theory deals; it does not restrict, for example, the exactness of a position measurement alone or a velocity measurement alone.❞
—Werner Heisenberg 🍎🍎(1901-1976) Theoretical Physicist.

Back to Top


🎓 Megastructure Engineering with the Matrioshka brain


diag. 6 The X-shaped Universe

in algebra,              the unknow(n)
in computer electronics, the black box
in quantum mechanics,    the black body
in physics,                  black (dark) matter, energy
in biology,              the double helix
in geometry,             the torus within a torus, the hypertorus
                         hypersphere, hypercube, hyperpyramid, 
                         hyper-perfect-solids

         fundamental force       density
         particle_          _decoherence     
                |\          /|
                  \  wave  /
                   <------>    
                  /  wave  \
                |/_        _\|
        coherence            antiparticle
AXION  <-----> proton >-< proton <-----> GRAVITON
vacuum              bubble               vacuum  
  ^-------- mass     sub     mass ---------^
  v             \  nucleon  /              v  
bubble           \         /             bubble
                   h-boson
Kardashev Scale Civilization Type 2

World Engineering Interactive Map

world_engineering_interactive_map.jpg
(Fig. 00) world_engineering_interactive_map.jpg
Hover mouse over featured objects for tool-tip information.

Link to local File: parchment_text_icon.png world_engineering_interactive_map.txt


Interferometry
“A technique which uses the interference of superimposed waves to extract information. Interferometry typically uses electromagnetic waves ... Makes use of the principle of superposition to combine waves in a way that will cause the result of their combination to have some meaningful property that is diagnostic of the original state of the waves. This works because when two waves with the same frequency combine, the resulting intensity pattern is determined by the phase difference between the two waves—waves that are in phase will undergo constructive interference while waves that are out of phase will undergo destructive interference. Waves which are not completely in phase nor completely out of phase will have an intermediate intensity pattern, which can be used to determine their relative phase difference. Most interferometers use light or some other form of electromagnetic wave.” —wikipedia
pInterferometry

Back to Top


🎓 Range of the Human Brain

direct_observational_model.jpg

(Fig. 19) direct_observational_model.jpg

This sense of direct observation includes everything that can be detected with science-engineered tools, beyond which are yet undetected or indirectly detected constructs such as quantum gravity and dark matter/energy.

🐝 Bee brains challenge view that larger brains are superior at understanding conceptual relationships
https://phys.org/news/2013-10-bee-brains-view-larger-superior.html

The observation of the universe today is full of grand measurements of optical, radio, gravitational instruments and theoretical models, but the range of the human brain is still limited by its organic function which is an absolute of its existence. The illusion that nature is somehow 'designed' is generated by the brain's own inherent complexity of sensory-perception and cognitive processing evolved through advance of intelligence of species from the first phototrophic cells to the complex mammal visual cortex.

🐝 Planet Bee

While the human brain is about 30 times faster than the fastest supercomputers, the bee brain is 3 to 4 times faster than the human brain in visual processing. Theoretically, a bee, given about 100 times the processing speed of a classic computer, would be an excellent candidate species for the evolution of a Quantum brain. All organic brain function of animals may be considered under influence of quantum reality generating a form of determinism in cognition and behavior.


Olbers' paradox refers to starlight as if each star were a photon moving inward toward a single centerpoint as the Earth. What would be seen from the Earth is a constantly and completely illuminated sky. Obler's paradox makes a bit of sense in Newton's universe, but almost none in Einstein's universe, and yet it returns in consideration of the quantum universe as an interesting idea of what the inside of a photon might look like and what the entire universe might look like from the outside.

Inside the photon Universe from outside


Contrast effect
pContrast_effect

Inside the photon Universe from outside

Two-photon Physics
“Two-photon physics, also called gamma–gamma physics, is a branch of particle physics that describes the interactions between two photons. Normally, beams of light pass through each other unperturbed. Inside an optical material, and if the intensity of the beams is high enough, the beams may affect each other through a variety of non-linear effects. In pure vacuum, some weak scattering of light by light exists as well. Also, above some threshold of this center-of-mass energy of the system of the two photons, matter can be created.” —wikipedia
pTwo-photon_physics

➤ Photon-photon polaritons: the intriguing particles that emerge when two photons couple
https://phys.org/news/2021-03-photon-photon-polaritons-intriguing-particles-emerge.html

Quasi-Particles

Quasi-particles with tunable interactions
https://phys.org/news/2021-09-quasi-particles-tunable-interactions.html


❝Stars have a life cycle much like animals. They get born, they grow, they go through a definite internal development, and finally they die, to give back the material of which they are made so that new stars may live.❞
❝Finally I got to carbon, and as you all know, in the case of carbon the reaction works out beautifully. One goes through six reactions, and at the end one comes back to carbon. In the process one has made four hydrogen atoms into one of helium.❞
❝No one any longer pays attention to - if I may call it - the spirit of physics, the idea of discovery, the idea of understanding. I think it's difficult to make clear to the non-physicist the beauty of how it fits together, of how you can build a world picture, and the beauty that the laws of physics are immutable.❞
❝I call on all scientists in all countries to cease and desist from work creating, developing, improving and manufacturing further nuclear weapons - and, for that matter, other weapons of potential mass destruction such as chemical and biological weapons.❞
—Hans Bethe 🍎 (1906—2005) Nuclear Physicist and Astrophysicist (Stellar Nucleosynthesis)

Back to Top


Wave Density Point of Gravitation

For the Love of Gravity

Gravity existed before it was mathematically and experimentally defined, and before it graduated to a variety of theories of the structure of nature (eg. Loop Quantum Gravity), Earth floated around the sun by the 'fixed law of gravity' before man existed. So too, quantum mechanics exists independent of the mind of man. Supercomputers may compensate for the lack of communication and math skills, but the human brain is directly a product of the universe that constructed it, so it generally is stuctured in the full range of what is the entirety of the universe.


No Hair and Soft Hair — Weak Cosmic Gravity

pCosmic_censorship_hypothesis

“Since the physical behavior of singularities is unknown, if singularities can be observed from the rest of spacetime, causality may break down, and physics may lose its predictive power. The issue cannot be avoided, since according to the Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems, singularities are inevitable in physically reasonable situations. Still, in the absence of naked singularities, the universe, as described by the general theory of relativity, is deterministic: it is possible to predict the entire evolution of the universe (possibly excluding some finite regions of space hidden inside event horizons of singularities), knowing only its condition at a certain moment of time (more precisely, everywhere on a spacelike three-dimensional hypersurface, called the Cauchy surface).” —wikipedia

“The no-hair theorem states that all black hole solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell equations of gravitation and electromagnetism in general relativity can be completely characterized by only three externally observable classical parameters: mass, electric charge, and angular momentum. All other information (for which hair is a metaphor) about the matter that formed a black hole or is falling into it disappears behind the black-hole event horizon and is therefore permanently inaccessible to external observers. A study by Stephen Hawking, Malcolm Perry and Andrew Strominger postulates that black holes might contain soft hair, giving the black hole more degrees of freedom than previously thought. This hair permeates at a very low energy state, which is why it didn't come up in previous calculations that postulated the no-hair theorem.” —wikipedia

➤ Hawking team updates soft hair theory to help solve black hole information paradox
https://phys.org/news/2016-06-hawking-team-soft-hair-theory.html

➤ Primordial black holes and the search for dark matter from the multiverse
https://phys.org/news/2020-12-primordial-black-holes-dark-multiverse.html

➤ What is the black hole information paradox?
https://phys.org/news/2015-10-black-hole-paradox.html

Astronomers Detect Light Echoes Coming from Behind Supermassive Black Hole
…Analysis of the flares has revealed short flashes of photons consistent with the re-emergence of emission from behind the black hole; these are photons that reverberate off the far side of the black hole’s accretion disk, and are bent around the black hole and magnified by the strong gravitational field. …These observations match Albert Einstein’s predictions of how gravity bends light around black holes, as described in his theory of general relativity.
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/light-echoes-behind-supermassive-black-hole-09913.html


Strong Gravitation and N-body Problem​

“In astrophysical systems with strong gravitational fields, such as those near the event horizon of a black hole, n-body simulations must take into account general relativity; such simulations are the domain of numerical relativity. The n-body problem is the problem of predicting the individual motions of a group of celestial objects interacting with each other gravitationally. Solving this problem has been motivated by the desire to understand the motions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and visible stars. In the 20th century, understanding the dynamics of globular cluster star systems became an important n-body problem. The n-body problem in general relativity is considerably more difficult to solve due to additional factors like time and space distortions. —wikipedia”

⚫ Stability of the Solar System
pStability_of_the_Solar_System

⚫ Future of Earth
pFuture_of_Earth


Exogravitation

Exogravitation is an alternate gravity theory at this point, generally representing that universes are similarly formed in the orbital model consistent from galaxies down to atoms, and basically rejecting the idea that dark energy and dark matter are anything other than consistent with gravity and matter as we already understand. If other universes exist, they would be outside the gravitational space of this universe and also have a relative orbital in a topological physical space. The distances between universes would be even more enormous in magnitude than what we know of spacetime distances in our own universe. Another alternate gravity theory suggests that dark matter is invisible gas surrounding most galaxies.


Gravitational Redshift
pGravitational_redshift


➤ Is dark matter real, or have we misunderstood gravity?
https://phys.org/news/2021-06-dark-real-misunderstood-gravity.html

➤ History of gravitational theory
https://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~rwest/wikispeedia/wpcd/wp/g/Gravitation.htm

This is your brain in space: how gravity influences your mental abilities
…“Gravity is a sensory signal. Earth’s gravity is a constant acceleration of 9.807m/s², namely 1g. … We apply artificial vestibular simulation, in which some electrodes placed behind the ear electrically stimulate the vestibular nerve [which is responsible for hearing and balance]. … Using these methods, we can study how perception and cognition change when gravitational information is altered.”
https://www.sciencefocus.com/space/this-is-your-brain-on-space-how-gravity-influences-your-mental-abilities/


“Gravity compression generates heat, mass compression generates gravity.”

Back to Top


 ❏ Brainpower and Computational Power

“But a rough estimate based on the number of digital electrical pulses (action potentials) that the approximately 1011 neurons in a human brain send to one another per second via approximately 1014 contacts (synapses) suggests that an adult human brain carries out about one thousand trillion (1015) logical operations.” —webhome.phy.duke.edu

Robotics and AI Human Relations — Child Development — Animal Learning

		Uncanny valley				infant orientation
		Emulation					empathy with other
		Individuation					self awareness
		Imitation					reproduce in kind  
		Simulation					engineer in form

🎼 Link to Local MIDI file: midi.gifi_robot_alan_parsons.mid

components for the next generation of soft robotics
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/09/210908180516.htm

How environmental features can enhance robot awareness
https://techxplore.com/news/2021-10-environmental-features-robot-awareness.html


Quantum Neural Network
Most Quantum neural networks are developed as feed-forward networks. Similar to their classical counterparts, this structure intakes input from one layer of qubits, and passes that input onto another layer of qubits. This layer of qubits evaluates this information and passes on the output to the next layer. Eventually the path leads to the final layer of qubits. Quantum neural networks refer to three different categories: Quantum computer with classical data, classical computer with quantum data, and quantum computer with quantum data. —wikipedia
pQuantum_neural_network
pReservoir_computing
pRecursive_neural_network

🎼 Link to Local MIDI file: midi.gifeminence_front_who.mid

AI can make music. But will it replace your favorite musician?
https://scienceline.org/2021/01/ai-music-tools/


The convolutions of the cerebral cortex generate a large area in which association operates among 86 billion neurons processing 100 trillion connections. Given well- myelinated healthy integrative function between the major components of the brain down to the autonomic and peripheral systems, a human being would normally achieve at least 5 Ph.Ds worth of effective knowledge, science and technical skill by the end of puberty. Added power of the human brain is that it can extrapolate intelligence into electronic computer systems and fabrications of theoretical brains vastly advanced from itself. The universe itself can be thought of as a massive complex brain.

Study suggests compound protects myelin, nerve fibers
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-01-compound-myelin-nerve-fibers.html

Myelin: A gatekeeper of activity-dependent circuit plasticity?
https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.aba6905

What does myelin actually do?
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-01-myelin.html

diag. 7

Animal    <-     ->     Machine
            \   / 
Human        \ /     Transhuman
Intelligence  X    Intelligence
             / \
            /   \
Duality   <-     -> Singularity
  • 257.6×1024 Estimated computational power required to simulate 7 billion human brains in real time.

  • 4×1048 Estimated computational power of a Matrioshka brain, where the power source is the Sun, the outermost layer operates at 10 kelvins, and the constituent parts operate at or near the Landauer limit and draws power at the efficiency of a Carnot engine. Approximate maximum computational power for a Kardashev 2 civilization.

  • 5×1058 Estimated power of a galaxy equivalent in luminosity to the Milky Way converted into Matrioshka brains. Approximate maximum computational power for a Kardashev 3 civilization.

Computer Performance by Orders of Magnitude
pComputer_performance_by_orders_of_magnitude

Instructions Per Second
“In computing, floating point operations per second (FLOPS) is a measure of computer performance, useful in fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations. For such cases it is a more accurate measure than measuring instructions per second.” —wikipedia
pInstructions_per_second

Deep Learning
“Deep learning (also known as deep structured learning) is part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on artificial neural networks with representation learning. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were inspired by information processing and distributed communication nodes in biological systems. ANNs have various differences from biological brains. Specifically, neural networks tend to be static and symbolic, while the biological brain of most living organisms is dynamic (plastic) and analogue.” —wikipedia
pDeep_learning

Systems theory
“Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems, which are cohesive groups of interrelated, interdependent parts that can be natural or human-made. Every system is bounded by space and time, influenced by its environment, defined by its structure and purpose, and expressed through its functioning. A system may be more than the sum of its parts if it expresses synergy or emergent behavior. The field is related to systems thinking, machine logic, and systems engineering. ” —wikipedia
pSystems_theory

Recursion (computer science)
“In computer science, recursion is a method of solving a problem where the solution depends on solutions to smaller instances of the same problem. Such problems can generally be solved by iteration, but this needs to identify and index the smaller instances at programming time. Recursion solves such recursive problems by using functions that call themselves from within their own code. The approach can be applied to many types of problems, and recursion is one of the central ideas of computer science.” —wikipedia
pRecursion_(computer_science)

“There are two equivalent major definitions for the concept of a recursive language:”

  1. A recursive formal language is a recursive subset in the set of all possible words over the alphabet of the language.
  2. A recursive language is a formal language for which there exists a Turing machine that, when presented with any finite input string, halts and accepts if the string is in the language, and halts and rejects otherwise. The Turing machine always halts: it is known as a decider and is said to decide the recursive language.

“By the second definition, any decision problem can be shown to be decidable by exhibiting an algorithm for it that terminates on all inputs. An undecidable problem is a problem that is not decidable.” —wikipedia


Global brain
“The global brain is a neuroscience-inspired and futurological vision of the planetary information and communications technology network that interconnects all humans and their technological artifacts. As this network stores ever more information, takes over ever more functions of coordination and communication from traditional organizations, and becomes increasingly intelligent, it increasingly plays the role of a brain for the planet Earth.” —wikipedia
pGlobal_brain

We all live every day in virtual environments, defined by our ideas.
Michael Crichton (Author, Physician, Film-maker)

Back to Top


Moore's law

Moore's law predicted a constant doubling of processor power every two years that was true up until 2010, but since, computational power has become less a commercial product and more an operation of research into both classic supercomputers and quantum computers. The multiplexing of logical and physical processors seems to have its limit according to the current math and laws of physics, and then there is the question as to what exactly is there to be found in hypercomputing power? A solution to the mortality of life or an ability to make pleasure of every instant of biological existence? An eternity of consciousness or of human domination of the universe? Or are we directed by some evolutionary imperative to build a machine existence to replace our biological selves, and if so, what for? The acceleration of intelligence seems to nullify its own existence for the lack of any purpose for itself except to exist — which does equate existence to a construct of self-conserved and dynamic information. Living things as well operate to self-conserve life.


Antikythera Mechanism

—──▬▬═▬────────────────────────▬▬═Ω═▬▬─────────────────────────▬═▬▬──— 
_📜_________________Computer and Internet History___________________📜_
_📜_1820__Charles Babbage mechanical computers, analytical engines._📜_        
_📜_1850__Boolean algebra and shift from analog to digital logic.___📜_
_📜_1900__Electrical tech. develops from invention of vacuum diode._📜_ 
_📜_1930__Kurt Gödel universal formal language and Turing Machine.____📜_        
_📜_1945__Mainframe computers and machine level assembly language.__📜_
_📜_1955__First microcomputers use transistors and magnetic disks.__📜_ 
_📜_1960__Wide use of symbolic language and integrated electronics._📜_ 
_📜_1970__First networks operating systems and graphic video games._📜_
_📜_1975__Software electronics and personal computer industries.____📜_                  
_📜_1980__Data transfer systems for wide area inter-networking._____📜_
_📜_1990__World wide web and first broadband and mobile devices.____📜_
_📜_2000__Internet of things as more devices and industry connect.____📜_
_📜_2015__Networked and cloud supercomputing Summit supercomputer.___📜_
_📜_2020__Quantum processor and chemical computing development._______📜_
—──▬▬═▬────────────────────────▬▬═Ω═▬▬─────────────────────────▬═▬▬──— 

❝In mathematics you don't understand things. You just get used to them. — Science, as well as technology, will in the near and in the farther future increasingly turn from problems of intensity, substance, and energy, to problems of structure, organization, information, and control. — The sciences do not try to explain, they hardly even try to interpret, they mainly make models. By a model is meant a mathematical construct which, with the addition of certain verbal interpretations, describes observed phenomena. The justification of such a mathematical construct is solely and precisely that it is expected to work correctly to describe phenomena from a reasonably wide area. — All stable processes we shall predict.All unstable processes we shall control.❞
—John von Neumann 🍎 (1903—1957) Mathematician, Physicist, Computer Scientist and Engineer

von Neumann Architecture

  • A processing unit that contains an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers
  • A control unit that contains an instruction register and program counter
  • Memory that stores data and instructions
  • External mass storage
  • Input and output mechanisms

The Turing Machine

“A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine, which manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Despite the model's simplicity, +given any computer algorithm, a Turing machine capable of simulating that algorithm's logic can be constructed.”

“In 1936 the notion of a computable function was clarified by (Alan) Turing, and he showed the existence of universal computers that, with an appropriate program, could compute anything computed by any other computer. — We understand human mental processes only slightly better than a fish understands swimming.”
John McCarthy (computer and cognitive scientist)

❝The good news about computers is that they do what you tell them to do. The bad news is that they do what you tell them to do.❞
❝They were saying computers deal with numbers. This was absolutely nonsense. Computers deal with arbitrary information of any kind.❞
—Ted Nelson 🍎 (1937—) Information Technologist, Philosopher, and Sociologist
• Coined the terms hypertext and hypermedia in 1963 and published them in 1965. Nelson coined the terms transclusion, virtuality, and intertwingularity (in Literary Machines).

Content Centric Networking
pContent_centric_networking

Cyberspace
pCyberspace

Information Age
pInformation_Age

Semantic Web
pSemantic_Web

❝The WorldWideWeb (W3) is a wide-area hypermedia information retrieval initiative aiming to give universal access to a large universe of documents.
(quote from the first website @ http://info.cern.ch/)❞
❝The Web as I envisaged it, we have not seen it yet. The future is still so much bigger than the past.❞
❝The Web is now philosophical engineering. Physics and the Web are both about the relationship between the small and the large.❞
❝Physicists analyze systems. Web scientists, however, can create the systems.❞
—Tim Berners-Lee 🍎 (1955—) Computer Scientist


Creating a new type of computing that's 'naturally probabilistic'
You see, nature is unpredictable. How do you expect to predict it with a computer? said American physicist Richard Feynman before computer scientists at a conference in 1981.”
https://phys.org/news/2021-03-naturally-probabilistic.html

Mathematical Universe Hypothesis
“Our external physical reality is a mathematical structure. That is, the physical universe is not merely described by mathematics, but is mathematics (specifically, a mathematical structure). Mathematical existence equals physical existence, and all structures that exist mathematically exist physically as well. Observers, including humans, are self-aware substructures. In any mathematical structure complex enough to contain such substructures, they will subjectively perceive themselves as existing in a physically 'real' world.” —wikipedia
pMathematical_universe_hypothesis

Algorithm

1 REM BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Instruction Code)
5 REM Euclid's algorithm for greatest common divisor

  6 PRINT "Type two integers greater than 0"
  10 INPUT A,B
  20 IF B=0 THEN GOTO 80
  30 IF A > B THEN GOTO 60
  40 LET B=B-A
  50 GOTO 20
  60 LET A=A-B
  70 GOTO 20
  80 PRINT A
  90 END

pAlgorithm


❝We may say most aptly that the Analytical Engine weaves algebraical patterns just as the Jacquard loom weaves flowers and leaves.❞
❝The science of operations, as derived from mathematics more especially, is a science of itself, and has its own abstract truth and value.❞
❝Owing to some peculiarity in my nervous system, I have perception of some things, which no one else has; or at least very few, if any... I can throw rays from every quarter of the universe into one vast focus.❞
Ada Lovelace (1815—1852) Mathematician

Back to Top


🎓 Natural Engineering to Engineering Nature

da_vinci_bridge_animal_femur.jpg

(Fig. 20) da_vinci_bridge_animal_femur.jpg
phospholipid_bilayer_blackhole.jpg

(Fig. 21) phospholipid_bilayer_blackhole.jpg

Leonardo da Vinci's bridge design is composed from studies of strengths in tree-trunks and animal femurs. The compression block construction and angular arrangement is found to be a practical architectural engineering masterpiece. The phospholipid bilayer composing cell membranes may prove to associate similarly to the structure of the membrane of the universe full of black holes.

➤ MIT Engineers Show Da Vinci's 500-Year-Old Radical Bridge Design Would Have Worked
https://www.sciencealert.com/
da-vinci-s-innovative-giant-bridge-design-still-stands-up-500-years-later

There are four types of black holes: (Iconized with donut, lolipop, parfait and cone)

🍩 Stellar   🍭 Intermediate
🍨 Supermassive   🍦 Miniature

“The lower the mass, the higher the density of matter has to be in order to form a black hole.” The most commonly known way a black hole forms is by stellar death.

Hawking radiation demonstrates that black holes radiate energy, which conserves entropy and solves the incompatibility problems with the second law of thermodynamics. Entropy implies heat and therefore temperature. The loss of energy implies that black holes do not last forever, but rather evaporate or decay slowly. Black hole temperature is inversely related to mass. All known black hole candidates are so large that their temperature is far below that of the cosmic background radiation, which means they will gain energy on net by absorbing this radiation. They cannot begin to lose energy on net until the background temperature falls below their own temperature. This will occur at a cosmological redshift of more than one million, rather than the thousand or so since the background radiation formed.” —wikipedia

➤ Astronomers Witness Birth of Intermediate-Mass Black Hole
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/gw190521-intermediate-mass-black-hole-08808.html

   7 Billion Years Ago...
   Black Hole 1     —▶⚫  ⚫◀—  Black Hole 2 
   Merged Black Hole   🌑  142 Solar Masses
   Gravitational Waves   ‿︵‿︵‿︵︵‿ —▶ 🌏 Earth

❝Because gravity is attractive, gravitational energy is negative: One has to do work to separate a gravitationally bound system, such as the earth and moon. This negative energy can balance the positive energy needed to create matter, but it’s not quite that simple. The negative gravitational energy of the earth, for example, is less than a billionth of the positive energy of the matter particles the earth is made of. A body such as a star will have more negative gravitational energy, and the smaller it is (the closer the different parts of it are to each other), the greater this negative gravitational energy will be. But before it can become greater than the positive energy of the matter, the star will collapse to a black hole, and black holes have positive energy.❞
—Stephen Hawking 🍎 (1942—2018) Theoretical Physicist and Cosmologist.

“In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system. It is closely related to the number Ω of microscopic configurations that are consistent with the macroscopic quantities that characterize the system.”

[ The omega constant is a mathematical constant defined as the unique real number that satisfies the equation. Ω e Ω = 1 ]

➤ Scientists find black holes could reach 'stupendously large' sizes
https://phys.org/news/2021-01-scientists-black-holes-stupendously-large.html

Back to Top


Black Hole Thermodynamics
pBlack_hole_thermodynamics
“In physics, black hole thermodynamics is the area of study that seeks to reconcile the laws of thermodynamics with the existence of black-hole event horizons. As the study of the statistical mechanics of black-body radiation led to the advent of the theory of quantum mechanics, the effort to understand the statistical mechanics of black holes has had a deep impact upon the understanding of quantum gravity, leading to the formulation of the holographic principle.” —wikipedia

“Black holes give off “Hawking radiation” and eventually evaporate – meaning that information that enters them is lost forever, and that the laws of thermodynamics do apply because of how their entropy works. In his autobiography, My Brief History, Hawking relates how he came to his discovery while trying to approach the “next obvious step” in his work in 1973: “combining general relativity, the theory of the very large, with quantum mechanics, the theory of the very small”. —inews

➤ Black holes found to exert a pressure on their environment
https://phys.org/news/2021-09-black-holes-exert-pressure-environment.html

➤ Black hole thermodynamics: A history from Penrose to Hawking
https://phys.org/news/2021-09-black-holes-exert-pressure-environment.html

Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula for a black hole:

  • S = entropy (a thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system’s thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work)
  • h = Planck constant (the energy of a quantum of electromagnetic radiation divided by its frequency)
  • G = Newton’s constant (universal gravitational constant)
  • A = area of event horizon (a boundary in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer)
  • c = speed of light
  • k = Boltzmann’s constant (relates the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas)

S = π Akc³
     2hG

π 3.141592653589793238462643383279502884197...
39 decimal places accurate to about the size of an atom.

“If an apple is magnified to the size of the earth, then the atoms in the apple are approximately the size of the original apple” Atoms are 1 or 2×10−8 cm in radius. Feynman Lectures on Physics - Vol I:

Link to local File: parchment_text_icon.png 10_thousand_decimal_places_of_pi.txt

Indian mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama was the 1st to discover an infinite series to calculate the value of π. He was the first to use infinite series approximations for a range of trigonometric functions, which has been called the decisive step onward from the finite procedures of ancient mathematics to treat their limit-passage to infinity.

= 1  1 + 1 + 1 + ... + (-1)n + ...
4      3   5   7         2n+1

Number System

  • Natural numbers (ℕ): The counting numbers {1, 2, 3, ...} are commonly called natural numbers; however, other definitions include 0, so that the non-negative integers {0, 1, 2, 3, ...} are also called natural numbers. Natural numbers including 0 are also called whole numbers.
  • Integers (ℤ): Positive and negative counting numbers, as well as zero: {..., −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, ...}.
  • Rational numbers (ℚ): Numbers that can be expressed as a ratio of an integer to a non-zero integer. All integers are rational, but the converse is not true; there are rational numbers that are not integers.
  • Real numbers (ℝ): Numbers that can represent a distance along a line. They can be positive, negative, or zero. All rational numbers are real, but the converse is not true.
  • Irrational numbers: Real numbers that are not rational.
  • Imaginary numbers: Numbers that equal the product of a real number and the square root of −1. The number 0 is both real and imaginary.
  • Complex numbers (ℂ): Includes real numbers, imaginary numbers, and sums and differences of real and imaginary numbers.
  • Hypercomplex numbers include various number-system extensions: quaternions (ℍ), octonions (O), sedenions (S), trigintaduonions (𝕋), tessarines, coquaternions, and biquaternions.

1010100
A googolplex is the number 10googol, or equivalently, 10(10100). Written out in ordinary decimal notation, it is 1 followed by 10100 zeroes, that is, a 1 followed by a googol zeroes. One googol is presumed to be greater than the number of atoms in the observable universe, which has been estimated to be approximately 1078 —wikipedia

Large numbers (googology)
pLarge_numbers

  • The number of cells in the human body (estimated at 3.72 × 1013)
  • The number of bits on a computer hard disk (as of 2021, typically about 1013, 1–2 TB)
  • The number of neuronal connections in the human brain (estimated at 1014)
  • The total number of DNA base pairs within the entire biomass on Earth, as a possible approximation of global biodiversity, is estimated at (5.3±3.6)×10
  • The mass of Earth consists of about 4x1051 nucleons

Cardinal Numbers
pCardinal_number


❝There is nothing without a reason.❞
❝Every mind has a horizon in respect to its present intellectual capacity but not in respect to its future intellectual capacity.❞
❝Every present state of a simple substance is the natural consequence of its preceding state, in such a way that its present is big with its future.❞
❝Nothing is accomplished all at once, and it is one of my great maxims, and one of the most completely verified, that Nature makes no leaps: a maxim which I have called the law of continuity.❞
❝Why is there anything at all rather than nothing whatsoever?❞
Law of Continuity: In any supposed continuous transition, ending in any terminus, it is permissible to institute a general reasoning, in which the final terminus may also be included.
—Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 🍎 (1646—1716) Logician, Mathematician and Natural philosopher


Numerology — SynchronicityApopheniaPareidolia

“Numerology is any belief in the divine or mystical relationship between a number and one or more coinciding events. It is also the study of the numerical value of the letters in words, names, and ideas. It is often associated with the paranormal, alongside astrology and similar divinatory arts.” —wikipedia

Numerals, words, and objects often have uncanny synchronicities with experiences and events, indicating a magical aspect of the universe which is consistent with information energy and form in 5D. The same phenomenon may explain how energy and form evolve matter into ordered complexities. From primitive to modern times humans have been influenced by magical connections, and much of the theory in quantum physics is yet highly ordered complexity addressing phenomenon in nature not yet understood.


List of cognitive biases
pList_of_cognitive_biases

Belief, decision-making and behavioral​
These biases affect belief formation, reasoning processes, business and economic decisions, and human behavior in general.
Social
Biases of egocentricity, conformity and attribution
Memory​
In psychology and cognitive science, a memory bias is a cognitive bias that either enhances or impairs the recall of a memory (either the chances that the memory will be recalled at all, or the amount of time it takes for it to be recalled, or both), or that alters the content of a reported memory.

Attribution (psychology)
pAttribution_(psychology)

❝Man is usually not content simply to register the observables that surround him; he needs to refer them as far as possible to the invariances of his environment.. The underlying causes of events, especially the motives of other persons, are the invariances of the environment that are relevant to him; they give meaning to what he experiences and it is these meanings that are recorded in his life space and are precipitated as the reality of the environment to which he then reacts.❞
—Fritz Heider 🍎 (1896—1988) Psychologist

Back to Top


🎓 An Hypothetical Cubicle Monkey Education Program:

Composite of Evolutionary Biology

composite_of_evolutionary_biology.jpg

(Fig. 22) composite_of_ evolutionary_biology.jpg

❝Embryology furnishes … the best measure of the true affinities existing between animals❞
—Louis Agassiz 🍎 (1807—1873) Biologist, Paleontologist and Geologist.


Metabolism

“The three main purposes of metabolism are:
(1) The conversion of food to energy to run cellular processes;
(2) The conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates;
(3) The elimination of metabolic wastes.
These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments.” —wikipedia


dna.png Animal-Like Embryos Evolved Long Before Complex Animals, Scientists Say
http://www.sci-news.com/biology/caveasphaera-animal-like-embryos-07850.html

dna.png Proteins unspool DNA so cells can take on unique properties
https://phys.org/news/2021-01-proteins-unspool-dna-cells-unique.html


Like fish in the ocean humans are vulnerable to their immediate natural, as well as social, environment. Deeper in the human construct of body and brain are biochemical responses and memory patterns as well as the homeostatic functions maintaining bodily function and consciousness. The bacteria are mostly well-developed single-celled prokaryotes, evolving into stages of multicellular organization (eukaryotes) from cellular communities.

⚫ Vitamin B12
“Nearly all animal life is dependent on bacteria for survival as only bacteria and some archaea possess the genes and enzymes necessary to synthesize vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, and provide it through the food chain. Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body. It is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is particularly important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin.” —wikipedia

A human being is a structure of the history of evolution of animals and physiological pathways of organs and cells since the origin of life on Earth. Human gestation is a general reference to all stages of animal evolution from early eukaryotes through fish, reptiles, mammals, to primates. The human placenta is a mini-ocean in which biochemical evolution is reconstructed through its 3.5 billion year history into the human fetus. The human is the culmination of major stages of animal development, and the human neonate undergoes stages of development from infancy to adulthood processing through the physiological, cognitive and behavioral functions of all essential species down its evolutionary lineage.


❝Evolution thus is merely contingent on certain processes articulated by Darwin: variation and selection. No longer is a fixed object transformed, as in transformational evolution, but an entirely new start is, so to speak, made in every generation.❞
❝…Geneticists described evolution simply as a change in gene frequencies in populations, totally ignoring the fact that evolution consists of the two simultaneous but quite separate phenomena of adaptation and diversification.❞
❝Actually, the entire ascent of life can be presented as an adaptive radiation in the time dimension. From the beginning of replicating molecules to the formation of membrane-bounded cells, the formation of chromosomes, the origin of nucleated eukaryotes, the formation of multicellular organisms, the rise of endothermy, and the evolution of a large and highly complex central nervous system, each of these steps permitted the utilization of a different set of environmental resources, that is, the occupation of a different adaptive zone.❞
(What Evolution Is (1940))
—Ernst Mayr 🍎 (1904—2005) Evolutionary Biologist, Philosopher of Biology.

Back to Top


In the Garden of the Dawn of Life   🐢   🐍   🐀   🐒  

monarch_butterfly.jpg
(Fig. 23)
monarch_butterfly.jpg
1. Homeostasis:
Regulation of the internal environment to maintain a constant state; for example, sweating to reduce temperature.
2. Organization:
Being structurally composed of one or more cells – the basic units of life.
3. Metabolism:
Transformation of energy by converting chemicals and energy into cellular components (anabolism) and decomposing organic matter (catabolism). Living things require energy to maintain internal organization (homeostasis) and to produce the other phenomena associated with life.
4. Growth:
Maintenance of a higher rate of anabolism than catabolism. A growing organism increases in size in all of its parts, rather than simply accumulating matter.
5. Adaptation:
The ability to change over time in response to the environment. This ability is fundamental to the process of evolution and is determined by the organism's heredity, diet, and external factors.
6. Response to stimuli:
Response can take many forms, from the contraction of a unicellular organism to external chemicals, to complex reactions involving all the senses of multicellular organisms. A response is often expressed by motion; for example, the leaves of a plant turning toward the sun (phototropism), and chemotaxis.
7. Reproduction:
The ability to produce new individual organisms, either asexually from a single parent organism or sexually from two parent organisms.

pLife
pSexual_dimorphism

pBinomial_nomenclature
Binomial Nomenclature based on the idea of Adam naming the animals.

⚫ Migration patterns reveal an 'Eden' for ancient humans and animals
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/05/200522140210.htm

pMitochondrial_Eve

“In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all living humans. In other words, she is defined as the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman. The male analog to the Mitochondrial Eve is the Y-chromosomal Adam (or Y-MRCA), the individual from whom all living humans are patrilineally descended. As the identity of both matrilineal and patrilineal MRCAs is dependent on genealogical history (pedigree collapse), they need not have lived at the same time. As of 2013, estimates for the age Y-MRCA are subject to substantial uncertainty, with a wide range of times from 180,000 to 580,000 years ago. The age of the human MRCA is unknown. It is almost certainly less than the age of either the Y-MRCA or the mt-MRCA, estimated at around 200,000 years.” —wikipedia

Last universal common ancestor
pLast_universal_common_ancestor
⚫ Cell (biology)
pCell_(biology)
pCell_biology
⚫ Tunneling Nanotube
pTunneling_nanotube

⚫ DNA and RNA codon tables
pDNA_and_RNA_codon_tables

❝The truth is, the Science of Nature has been already too long made only a work of the Brain and the Fancy: It is now high time that it should return to the plainness and soundness of Observations on material and obvious things.❞
Robert Hooke 🍎 (1635—1703) Physicist and Chemist.

❝The first step in wisdom is to know the things themselves; this notion consists in having a true idea of the objects; objects are distinguished and known by classifying them methodically and giving them appropriate names. Therefore, classification and name-giving will be the foundation of our science.❞
—Carl Linnaeus 🍎 (1707—1778) Botanist, Zoologist, and Physician.

diag. 8                                                         .
                                              .         ;  
                 .  BACTERIA     .     EUCARYA ;%     ;;  Animalia 
                   ,           ,                :;%  %;   
                    :         ; Cyanobacteria    :;%;'     .,   
           ,.        %;     %;  Chloroplast       %;'    ,;
             ;       ;%;  %%;        ,     %;    ;%;    ,%'
              %;       %;%;      ,  ;       %;  ;%;   ,%;' 
               ;%;      %;        ;%;        % ;%;  ,%;'
                `%;.     ;%;     %;' Proteo-`;%%;.%;'   Plantae
                 `:;%.    ;%%. %@;bacteria  ;@%;%'
                    `:%;.  :;bd% Mitochondria %;'
                      `@%:.  :;%.         ;@@%;'   
                        `@%.  `;@%.      ;@@%;         
                          `@%%. `@%%    ;@@%;        
                            ;@%. :@%%  %@@%;       
                  ARCHAEA     %@bd%%%bd%%:;     
                                #@%%%%%:;;   Unresolved
                                %@@%%%::;    branching order
                                %@@@%(o);  . '         
                      rRNA      %@@@o%;:(.,'         
           sequence change  `.. %@@@o%::;    PROCARYA       
                               `)@@@o%::;    VIRUSES     
                                %@@(o)::;        
                               .%@@@@%::;    CELLS     
                               ;%@@@@%::;.          
                              ;%@@@@%%:;;;.  Nucleotides
                          ...;%@@@@@%%:;;;;,..    
           Phospholipids         ORIGIN      Amino Acids
  1. Cells were assembled by action of waves and vents in the ocean.
  2. All living cells are connected in time to the first living cells.
  3. All living cells are connected in time to the first organic elements in the universe.
  4. All subatomic particles in the universe are connected in time to the first wave (hypothetical starting point of cosmic and biological evolution).
diag. 9

Convergent     Divergent
        Parallel 
 A A     A   A   A   T
/   \    |   |   \   /
S    T   S   T    S S

Evolution at an amino acid position. 
In each case, the left-hand species 
changes from having alanine (A) at 
a specific position in a protein in 
a hypothetical ancestor, and now has 
serine (S) there. The right-hand 
species may undergo divergent, 
parallel, or convergent evolution at 
this amino acid position relative to 
the first species. —wikipedia

Convergent (parallel, divergent) evolution
“The opposite of convergence is divergent evolution, where related species evolve different traits. Convergent evolution is similar to parallel evolution, which occurs when two independent species evolve in the same direction and thus independently acquire similar characteristics;”
pConvergent_evolution

Mosaic evolution
“Mosaic evolution (or modular evolution) is the concept, mainly from palaeontology, that evolutionary change takes place in some body parts or systems without simultaneous changes in other parts. Another definition is the evolution of characters at various rates both within and between species. Its place in evolutionary theory comes under long-term trends or macroevolution.”
pMosaic_evolution

Orthogenesis
“Orthogenesis, also known as orthogenetic evolution, progressive evolution, evolutionary progress, or progressionism, is the biological hypothesis that organisms have an innate tendency to evolve in a definite direction towards some goal (teleology) due to some internal mechanism or driving force. According to the theory, the largest-scale trends in evolution have an absolute goal such as increasing biological complexity.”
pOrthogenesis

Comparative anatomy
“Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species. It is closely related to evolutionary biology and phylogeny (the evolution of species). The science began in the classical era, continuing in Early Modern times with work by Pierre Belon who noted the similarities of the skeletons of birds and humans. Comparative anatomy has provided evidence of common descent, and has assisted in the classification of animals.”
pComparative_anatomy

❝Darwin's idea of natural selection makes people uncomfortable because it reverses the direction of tradition.❞
❝Not a single one of the cells that compose you knows who you are, or cares.❞
❝If I were to give an award for the single best idea anyone ever had, I'd give it to Darwin, ahead of even Newton or Einstein and everyone else. In a single stroke, the idea of evolution by natural selection unifies the realm of life, meaning, and purpose with the realm of space and time, cause and effect, mechanism and physical law. It is not just a wonderful idea. It is a dangerous idea.❞
❝Has it ever occurred to you how lucky you are to be alive? More than 99 percent of all the creatures that have ever lived have died without progeny, but not a single one of your ancestors falls into that group! … Not a single one of your ancestors, all the way back to the bacteria, succumbed to predation before reproducing, or lost out in the competition for a mate.❞
—Daniel Dennett 🍎 (1942—) Philosopher of Evolutionary Biology and Cognitive Scientist


Study reveals how egg cells get so big
“Oocyte growth relies on physical phenomena that drive smaller cells to dump their contents into a larger cell”
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/03/210306113142.htm

➤ Researchers identify RNA editing events that impact gene expression and phenotype
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-03-rna-events-impact-gene-phenotype.html


dna.png DNA is Just a List of Ingredients, Researcher Says
“In addition, scientists are unable to determine the complex shape of an organ such as an eye, or that a creature will have eyes at all, by reading the creature’s DNA. These fundamental aspects of anatomy are dictated by something outside of the DNA.”
http://www.sci-news.com/biology/heredity-framework-08360.html


dna.png Discovery boosts theory that life on Earth arose from RNA-DNA mix
Newly described chemical reaction could have assembled DNA building blocks before life forms and their enzymes existed
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/12/201228095428.htm

Surprising new research: We're more like primitive fishes than once believed.
“People traditionally think that lungs and limbs are key innovations that came with the vertebrate transition from water to land. But in fact, the genetic basis of air-breathing and limb movement was already established in our fish ancestors 50 million years earlier.”
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-primitive-fishes-believed.html

dna.png New study on circadian clock shows 'junk DNA' plays a key role in regulating rhythms
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-01-circadian-clock-junk-dna-key.html

Self-restrained genes enable evolutionary novelty
Evolution can promote novelty by keeping gene expression in check
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/11/191121121734.htm

The vast little library inside your cells
Understanding how genetic material is organized spatially is a crucial part of understanding the basic workings of life.
https://phys.org/news/2021-11-vast-library-cells.html

Death enables complexity in chemical evolution
“When you have unlimited variation, the system won't go anywhere, it will just produce small amounts of all kinds of variants. In contrast, if there is very little variation, nothing really new will appear.”
—Sijbren Otto, Professor of Systems Chemistry at the University of Groningen
https://phys.org/news/2021-03-death-enables-complexity-chemical-evolution.html


⚫ DNA Is a Structure That Encodes Biological Information
https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/dna-is-a-structure-that-encodes-biological-6493050/

“At the most basic level, all DNA is composed of a series of smaller molecules called nucleotides. In turn, each nucleotide is itself made up of three primary components: a nitrogen-containing region known as a nitrogenous base, a carbon-based sugar molecule called deoxyribose, and a phosphorus-containing region known as a phosphate group attached to the sugar molecule. There are four different DNA nucleotides, each defined by a specific nitrogenous base: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine.” —scitable

“During DNA packaging, long pieces of double-stranded DNA are tightly looped, coiled, and folded so that they fit easily within the cell. Eukaryotes accomplish this feat by wrapping their DNA around special proteins called histones, thereby compacting it enough to fit inside the nucleus. Together, eukaryotic DNA and the histone proteins that hold it together in a coiled form is called chromatin.” —scitable

“DNA can be further compressed through a twisting process called supercoiling. Most prokaryotes lack histones, but they do have supercoiled forms of their DNA held together by special proteins. In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, this highly compacted DNA is then arranged into structures called chromosomes. Chromosomes take different shapes in different types of organisms. For instance, most prokaryotes have a single circular chromosome, whereas most eukaryotes have one or more linear chromosomes, which often appear as X-shaped structures.” —scitable

❝The brain is the last and grandest biological frontier, the most complex thing we have yet discovered in our universe. It contains hundreds of billions of cells interlinked through trillions of connections. The brain boggles the mind. —Foreword for Discovering the Brain (1992) by Sandra Ackerman
❝Here at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, we have genetically rearranged various viruses and bacteria as part of our medical research. In fact, we have been able to create entirely new types of DNA molecules by splicing together the genetic information from different organisms - recombinant DNA.❞
—James Watson 🍎 (1928—) Molecular Biologist, Geneticist and Zoologist.


Protein Folding

If DNA is only a list of ingredients then it is in the geometric complexity of folded proteins that is the structure of living organisms.

“Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain is translated to its native three-dimensional structure, typically a folded conformation by which the protein becomes biologically functional. Via an expeditious and reproducible process, a polypeptide folds into its characteristic three-dimensional structure from a random coil. Each protein exists first as an unfolded polypeptide or random coil after being translated from a sequence of mRNA to a linear chain of amino acids. At this stage the polypeptide lacks any stable (long-lasting) three-dimensional structure. As the polypeptide chain is being synthesized by a ribosome, the linear chain begins to fold into its three-dimensional structure.” —wikipedia

Proteins, proteins everywhere
https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.abn5795

DeepMind and EMBL release the most complete database of predicted 3D structures of human proteins
https://phys.org/news/2021-07-deepmind-embl-database-3d-human.html

“The proteome is the entire set of proteins that is, or can be, expressed by a genome, cell, tissue, or organism at a certain time. It is the set of expressed proteins in a given type of cell or organism, at a given time, under defined conditions. Proteomics is the study of the proteome” —wikipedia

Back to Top


Quantum Biology
Quantum Biology: Quantum aspects of evolution: a contribution towards evolutionary explorations of genotype networks via quantum walks
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsif.2020.0567

“Quantum entanglement refers to the states of two or more particles being interdependent, regardless of the distance separating them. It’s one of many counterintuitive features of the subatomic landscape, in which particles such as electrons and photons behave as both particles and waves simultaneously, occupy multiple positions and states at once, and traverse apparently impermeable barriers. Processes at this scale are captured in the complex mathematical language of quantum mechanics, and frequently produce effects that appear to defy common sense. It was using this language that Vedral and colleagues had detected signatures of entanglement between photons and bacteria in data from the Sheffield experiment.” —the-scientist

➤ A Nanophotonic Structure Containing Living Photosynthetic Bacteria
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/smll.201701777
https://www.the-scientist.com/features/quantum-biology-may-help-solve-some-of-lifes-greatest-mysteries-65873

➤ Building blocks of life can form long before stars
https://phys.org/news/2020-11-blocks-life-stars.html

➤ Process that might have led to first organic molecules
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200908170535.htm

➤ New genome alignment tool empowers large-scale studies of vertebrate evolution
https://phys.org/news/2020-11-genome-alignment-tool-empowers-large-scale.html

➤ Researchers Observe Formation of Four-Stranded DNA in Living Human Cells
http://www.sci-news.com/biology/dna-g-quadruplexes-human-cells-08693.html

Atomic Spectroscopy
➤ Physicists Precisely Measure Charge Radius of Alpha Particle
http://www.sci-news.com/physics/charge-radius-alpha-particle-09296.html

Quantum Chemistry   Isomer   Polymer   Monomer
Quantum Chemistry:
https://www.nature.com/subjects/quantum-chemistry

Valence Bond Theory
“In chemistry, valence bond (VB) theory is one of the two basic theories, along with molecular orbital (MO) theory, that were developed to use the methods of quantum mechanics to explain chemical bonding. It focuses on how the atomic orbitals of the dissociated atoms combine to give individual chemical bonds when a molecule is formed. In contrast, molecular orbital theory has orbitals that cover the whole molecule.”
pValence_bond_theory

In chemistry, an enantiomer (also named optical isomer, antipode, optical antipode, or mirror isomer) is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are mirror images of each other that cannot appear identical simply by reorientation. A single chiral atom or similar structural feature in a compound causes that compound to have two possible structures which are non-superposable, each a mirror image of the other. Each member of the pair is termed an enantiomorph (enantio = opposite; morph = form); the structural property is termed enantiomerism. The presence of multiple chiral features in a given compound increases the number of geometric forms possible, though there may still be some perfect-mirror-image pairs.

diag. 10 Atomic-Molecular Symmetry

         COOH     HOOC
         |           |
         C--H     H--C
     H₃C_/ \_      _/ \_CH₃
           OH     HO

(S)-(+)-lactic acid (left) and 
(R)-(–)-lactic acid (right) 
 are nonsuperposable mirror images of each other —wikipedia

Chirality (chemistry)
pChirality_(chemistry)
Mirror symmetry (string theory)   Reflection Symmetry   Symmetry in Biology   Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics
pSymmetry_in_biology#Bilateral_symmetry
Cosmic Strings   Supersymmetry   Spacetime Symmetries   Schwarzschild Radius   Lagrangian
Spontaneous symmetry breaking
pSpontaneous_symmetry_breaking
Parity(physics)
pParity_(physics)

Intrinsic Parity
“If the universe were reflected in a mirror, most of the laws of physics would be identical—things would behave the same way regardless of 'left' or 'right'. The concept of mirror reflection is called ' intrinsic parity' (P). Gravity, the electromagnetic force, and the strong interaction all behave in the same way regardless of whether or not the universe is reflected in a mirror, and conserve parity (P-symmetry). The weak interaction does distinguish 'left' from 'right', a phenomenon called parity violation (P-violation).” —wikipedia


❝I believe all complicated phenomena can be explained by simpler scientific principles.❞
❝Science is the search for truth, that is the effort to understand the world: it involves the rejection of bias, of dogma, of revelation, but not the rejection of morality.❞
—Linus Pauling 🍎 (1901—1994) Chemist, Biochemist and Chemical Engineer

Back to Top


The Central Science

“Chemistry is often called the central science because of its role in connecting the physical sciences, which include chemistry, with the life sciences and applied sciences such as medicine and engineering. … The central role of chemistry can be seen in the systematic and hierarchical classification of the sciences by Auguste Comte. Each discipline provides a more general framework for the area it precedes” —wikipedia

mathematics → astronomy → physics → chemistry → biology → social sciences


❝Every science consists in the coordination of facts; if the different observations were entirely isolated, there would be no science.❞
❝To understand a science it is necessary to know its history.❞
❝Mathematical Analysis is... the true rational basis of the whole system of our positive knowledge.❞
❝The progress of the individual mind is not only an illustration, but an indirect evidence of that of the general mind. The point of departure of the individual and of the race being the same, the phases of the mind of a man correspond to the epochs of the mind of the race. Now, each of us is aware, if he looks back upon his own history, that he was a theologian in his childhood, a metaphysician in his youth, and a natural philosopher in his manhood. All men who are up to their age can verify this for themselves.❞
—Auguste Comte 🍎 (1798—1857) Philosopher of Science and Sociologist
(Formulated the doctrine of positivism)

Comte's social evolution stages were: 
(1) the theological stage, 
(2) the metaphysical stage, and 
(3) the positive (scientific) stage

❝I consider nature a vast chemical laboratory in which all kinds of composition and decompositions are formed.❞
❝Vegetation is the basic instrument the creator uses to set all of nature in motion.❞
❝We ought, in every instance, to submit our reasoning to the test of experiment, and never to search for truth but by the natural road of experiment and observation.❞
—Antoine Lavoisier 🍎 (1743—1794) Biologist and Chemist

Classical Chemistry

“It is generally accepted that Lavoisier's great accomplishments in chemistry stem largely from his changing the science from a qualitative to a quantitative one. Lavoisier is most noted for his discovery of the role oxygen plays in combustion. He recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783), and opposed the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He predicted the existence of silicon (1787) and discovered that, although matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same.” —wikipedia


The atomic level of matter begins with Hydrogen, and all atomic elements above can be understood as consistent with the basic hydrogen atom. Interior to the Hydrogen atom is a single positively charged proton, no neutron, but necessarily a negatively charged eletron. The abundance in nature of such an object is 99.985%.

diag. 11 Periodic Table of Elements of the Hydrogen Universe

   1A   2A                                         3A  4A  5A  6A  7A  8A
  -----                                                               -----
1 | H  |                                                              |He  |
  |---+----                                       --------------------+---|
2 |Li |Be |                                       | B | C | N | O | F |Ne |
  |---+---|                                       |---+---+---+---+---+---|
3 |Na |Mg |3B  4B  5B  6B  7B |    8B     |1B  2B |Al |Si | P | S |Cl |Ar |
  |---+---+---------------------------------------+---+---+---+---+---+---|
4 | K |Ca |Sc |Ti | V |Cr |Mn | Fe |Co |Ni |Cu |Zn |Ga |Ge |As |Se |Br |Kr |
  |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---|
5 |Rb |Sr | Y |Zr |Nb |Mo |Tc |Ru |Rh |Pd |Ag |Cd |In |Sn |Sb |Te | I |Xe |
  |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---|
6 |Cs |Ba |LAN|Hf |Ta | W |Re |Os |Ir |Pt |Au |Hg |Tl |Pb |Bi |Po |At |Rn |
  |---+---+---+------------------------------------------------------------
7 |Fr |Ra |ACT|
  ===--------------------------------------------------------------------===
   Lanthanide |La |Ce |Pr |Nd |Pm |Sm |Eu |Gd |Tb |Dy |Ho |Er |Tm |Yb |Lu |
              |---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---|
   Actinide   |Ac |Th |Pa | U |Np |Pu |Am |Cm |Bk |Cf |Es |Fm |Md |No |Lw |
              -------------------------------------------------------------

“Hydrogen (1H) has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H. The first two of these are stable, while 3H has a half-life of 12.32 years. There are also heavier isotopes, which are all synthetic and have a half-life less than one zeptosecond (10−21 second). Of these, 5H is the most stable, and 7H is the least. Hydrogen is the only element whose isotopes have different names in common use today: the 2H (or hydrogen-2) isotope is deuterium and the 3H (or hydrogen-3) isotope is tritium. The symbols D and T are sometimes used for deuterium and tritium. The IUPAC accepts the D and T symbols, but recommends instead using standard isotopic symbols (2H and 3H) to avoid confusion in the alphabetic sorting of chemical formulas. The ordinary isotope of hydrogen, with no neutrons, is sometimes called protium. (During the early study of radioactivity, some other heavy radioactive isotopes were given names, but such names are rarely used today.)” —wikipedia

The Hydrogen Universe

“Approximately 73% of the mass of the visible universe is in the form of hydrogen. Helium makes up about 25% of the mass, and everything else represents only 2%. The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment. Abundance is measured in one of three ways: by the mass-fraction (the same as weight fraction); by the mole-fraction (fraction of atoms by numerical count, or sometimes fraction of molecules in gases); or by the volume-fraction Volume-fraction is a common abundance measure in mixed gases such as planetary atmospheres, and is similar in value to molecular mole-fraction for gas mixtures at relatively low densities and pressures, and ideal gas mixtures.

The abundance of chemical elements in the universe is dominated by the large amounts of hydrogen and helium which were produced in the Big Bang. Remaining elements, making up only about 2% of the universe, were largely produced by supernovae and certain red giant stars. Lithium, beryllium and boron are rare because although they are produced by nuclear fusion, they are then destroyed by other reactions in the stars. The elements from carbon to iron are relatively more abundant in the universe because of the ease of making them in supernova nucleosynthesis. Elements of higher atomic number than iron (element 26) become progressively rarer in the universe, because they increasingly absorb stellar energy in their production. Also, elements with even atomic numbers are generally more common than their neighbors in the periodic table, due to favorable energetics of formation.

The abundance of elements in the Sun and outer planets is similar to that in the universe. Due to solar heating, the elements of Earth and the inner rocky planets of the Solar System have undergone an additional depletion of volatile hydrogen, helium, neon, nitrogen, and carbon (which volatilizes as methane). The crust, mantle, and core of the Earth show evidence of chemical segregation plus some sequestration by density. Lighter silicates of aluminum are found in the crust, with more magnesium silicate in the mantle, while metallic iron and nickel compose the core. The abundance of elements in specialized environments, such as atmospheres, or oceans, or the human body, are primarily a product of chemical interactions with the medium in which they reside.” —wikipedia


Cavendish Experiment

“Cavendish is noted for his discovery of hydrogen, which he termed inflammable air. He described the density of inflammable air, which formed water on combustion, in a 1766 paper, On Factitious Airs. Antoine Lavoisier later reproduced Cavendish's experiment and gave the element its name.” —wikipedia

“The Cavendish experiment, performed in 1797–1798 by English scientist Henry Cavendish, was the first experiment to measure the force of gravity between masses in the laboratory and the first to yield accurate values for the gravitational constant. Because of the unit conventions then in use, the gravitational constant does not appear explicitly in Cavendish's work. Instead, the result was originally expressed as the specific gravity of the Earth, or equivalently the mass of the Earth. His experiment gave the first accurate values for these geophysical constants. The experiment was devised sometime before 1783 by geologist John Michell, who constructed a torsion balance apparatus for it. However, Michell died in 1793 without completing the work. After his death the apparatus passed to Francis John Hyde Wollaston and then to Cavendish, who rebuilt the apparatus but kept close to Michell's original plan. Cavendish then carried out a series of measurements with the equipment and reported his results in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1798.” —wikipedia


Specific Gravity
Balsa Wood 0.02
Ethanol 0.78
Water 1
Table Salt 2.17
Iron 7.87

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relative_density

Total dissolved solids (TDS) is a measure of the dissolved combined content of all inorganic and organic substances present in a liquid in molecular, ionized, or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form. TDS concentrations are often reported in parts per million (ppm). Water TDS concentrations can be determined using a digital meter. Generally, the operational definition is that the solids must be small enough to survive filtration through a filter with 2-micrometer (nominal size, or smaller) pores. Total dissolved solids are normally discussed only for freshwater systems, as salinity includes some of the ions constituting the definition of TDS. The principal application of TDS is in the study of water quality for streams, rivers, and lakes.” —wikipedia

Back to Top


Nucleotides

⚫ “Nucleotides are organic molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate. They serve as monomeric units of the nucleic acid polymers – deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth. Nucleotides are obtained in the diet and are also synthesized from common nutrients by the liver.”
—wikipedia
pNucleotide

Organic and Biochemical Curriculum

 ❏ Amino Acid Nucleotide Lab

 ❏ Biogeochemical cycle Lab

 ❏ CNO Cycle Lab

 ❏ Carbon Cycle Lab

 ❏ Nitrogen Cycle Lab

 ❏ Oxygen Cycle Lab

Back to Top


Bioevolution Generating Galaxy: The Milky Way

❝The Universe is under no obligation to make sense to you.❞

❝Do you realize that if you fall into a black hole, you will see the entire future of the Universe unfold in front of you in a matter of moments and you will emerge into another space-time created by the singularity of the black hole you just fell into?❞
❝We are part of this universe; we are in this universe, but perhaps more important than both of those facts, is that the universe is in us.❞
❝Our galaxy, the Milky Way, is one of 50 or 100 billion other galaxies in the universe. And with every step, every window that modern astrophysics has opened to our mind, the person who wants to feel like they're the center of everything ends up shrinking.❞
❝Even with all our technology and the inventions that make modern life so much easier than it once was, it takes just one big natural disaster to wipe all that away and remind us that, here on Earth, we're still at the mercy of nature.❞
❝The theory of evolution, like the theory of gravity, is a scientific fact.❞
❝Darwin's theory of evolution is a framework by which we understand the diversity of life on Earth. But there is no equation sitting there in Darwin's 'Origin of Species' that you apply and say, 'What is this species going to look like in 100 years or 1,000 years?' Biology isn't there yet with that kind of predictive precision.❞
❝While natural selection drives Darwinian evolution, the growth of human culture is largely Lamarckian: new generations of humans inherit the acquired discoveries of generations past, enabling cosmic insight to grow slowly, but without limit.❞
—Neil DeGrasse Tyson 🍎 (1958—) Astrophysicist, Planetary Scientist, and Science Communicator.

A Study of the Abundance Distributions Along the Minor Axis of the Galactic Bulge
Quote from the abstract: ..the inner bulge is chemically distinct from the halo while the transition region is a blending of the two. It may be possible to use kinematics to disentangle the two populations via a radial velocity survey.
https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PhDT.........1T/abstract

➤ Galaxy Evolution is Much Faster Process than Previously Thought
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/galaxy-evolution-much-faster-process-09351.html

➤ Animated sequence of the VLTI images of stars around the Milky Way’s central black hole
https://www.eso.org/public/videos/eso2119b/

⚫ “Galaxy Rotation Curve: The galaxy rotation problem is the discrepancy between observed galaxy rotation curves and the theoretical prediction, assuming a centrally dominated mass associated with the observed luminous material. When mass profiles of galaxies are calculated from the distribution of stars in spirals and mass-to-light ratios in the stellar disks, they do not match with the masses derived from the observed rotation curves and the law of gravity. A solution to this conundrum is to hypothesize the existence of dark matter and to assume its distribution from the galaxy's center out to its halo. ” —wikipedia
pUniversal_Rotation_Curve

❝There is no problem in science that can be solved by a man that cannot be solved by a woman.❞
❝In a spiral galaxy, the ratio of dark-to-light matter is about a factor of ten. That's probably a good number for the ratio of our ignorance to knowledge. We're out of kindergarten, but only in about third grade.❞
❝So important is this dark matter to our understanding of the size, shape, and ultimate fate of the universe that the search for it will very likely dominate astronomy for the next few decades.❞
❝The conclusion is inescapable that non-luminous matter exists beyond the optical galaxy.❞
❝Science progresses best when observations force us to alter our preconceptions.❞
—Vera Florence Rubin (1928—2016) Astronomer

“The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy with a diameter between 150,000 and 200,000 light-years (ly). It is estimated to contain 100–400 billion stars and more than 100 billion planets. The Solar System is located at a radius of 26,490 (± 100) light-years from the Galactic Center, on the inner edge of the Orion Arm, one of the spiral-shaped concentrations of gas and dust. The stars in the innermost 10,000 light-years form a bulge and one or more bars that radiate from the bulge. The galactic center is an intense radio source known as Sagittarius A*, assumed to be a supermassive black hole of 4.100 (± 0.034) million solar masses.” —wikipedia

Anatomy of a Universe named Cosmos: —➤Stars —➤Elements —➤Planets

Fundamental Microbiological Structure and Reproduction

fundamental_microbiology.jpg
(Fig. 24) fundamental_microbiology.jpg

“Modern prokaryotes are mostly of the range of bacteria, having more member species than is known, and proceeding down, into pre-biotic, and across to Archaea and viral bio-structures. Prokaryotic cells do not have nuclear membranes surrounding the DNA, so cell division happens differently than in eukaryotes to the exclusion of mitosis. A single chromosome is replicated and the 2 copies split into 2 halves resulting in binary fission.” —wikipedia

“Mitosis and meiosis are nuclear division processes. Mitosis is of body (somatic) cells, and meiosis is of sex cells (gametes). Cell division occurs once in mitosis and twice in meiosis. Mitosis reproduces genetically identical cells and meiosis reproduces genetically different cells.”
—wikipedia


❝A sound Physics of the Earth should include all the primary considerations of the earth's atmosphere, of the characteristics and continual changes of the earth's external crust, and finally of the origin and development of living organisms. These considerations naturally divide the physics of the earth into three essential parts, the first being a theory of the atmosphere, or Meteorology, the second, a theory of the earth's external crust, or Hydrogeology, and the third, a theory of living organisms, or Biology.❞
—Jean-Baptiste Lamarck 🍎(1744—1829) Biologist and Zoologist

❝Of moral purpose I see no trace in Nature. That is an article of exclusively human manufacture and very much to our credit.❞
❝What we call rational grounds for our beliefs are often extremely irrational attempts to justify our instincts.❞
❝It is an error to imagine that evolution signifies a constant tendency to increased perfection. That process undoubtedly involves a constant remodelling of the organism in adaptation to new conditions; but it depends on the nature of those conditions whether the directions of the modifications effected shall be upward or downward.❞
—Thomas Huxley 🍎(1825—1895) Biologist, Palaeontologist and Anthropologist

Back to Top


Field View of Integrated Nuclear Physical and Biological Function

Binary Fission/Reproduction
 O O
  o    Materialization
 O O
Quadratic Fusion/Meiotic Reproduction

❝Something pretty mysterious had to give rise to the origin of the universe.❞
❝Biology is the study of complicated things that have the appearance of having been designed with a purpose.❞
❝As Darwin himself was at pains to point out, natural selection is all about differential survival within species, not between them. The theory of evolution by cumulative natural selection is the only theory we know of that is in principle capable of explaining the existence of organized complexity.❞
❝For the first half of geological time our ancestors were bacteria. Most creatures still are bacteria, and each one of our trillions of cells is a colony of bacteria.❞
❝Evolution never looks to the future.❞
—Richard Dawkins 🍎(1941—) Ethologist and Evolutionary Biologist


Human Memory (consciousness, brain and body), Atomic Memory, Computer Memory,
Cellular Memory, Cosmic Memory, Quantum Memory

❝When we remember something, we're taking bits and pieces of experience - sometimes from different times and places - and bringing it all together to construct what might feel like a recollection but is actually a construction.❞
❝We all have memories that are malleable and susceptible to being contaminated or supplemented in some way.❞
—Elizabeth Loftus 🍎(1944—) Cognitive Psychologist


❝To deal with the whole visual input at once, and make discriminations based on any combination of features in the field, would require too large a brain, or too much previous experience to be plausible.❞
❝Paying attention is not just analyzing carefully; rather, it is a constructive act… What we build has only the dimensions we have given it.❞
❝The attentive synthesis of any particular letter or figure takes an appreciable time, of the order of 100ms … If a whole row of letters is to be identified, they must be synthesized one at a time… To identify generally means to name, and hence to synthesize not only a visual object but a linguistic-auditory one… Hence the span of apprehension is limited to what can be synthesized, and then verbally stored.❞
❝The term cognition refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. It is concerned with these processes even when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations. Such terms as sensation. perception. imagery. retention. recall. problem-solving. and thinking. among others. refer to hypothetical stages or aspects of cognition.❞
—Ulric Neisser 🍎(1928—2012) Cognitive Psychologist


Semantic Memory

“Semantic memory is one of the two types of explicit memory (or declarative memory) (our memory of facts or events that is explicitly stored and retrieved). Semantic memory refers to general world knowledge that we have accumulated throughout our lives. This general knowledge (facts, ideas, meaning and concepts) is intertwined in experience and dependent on culture. Semantic memory is distinct from episodic memory, which is our memory of experiences and specific events that occur during our lives, from which we can recreate at any given point. For instance, semantic memory might contain information about what a cat is, whereas episodic memory might contain a specific memory of petting a particular cat. We can learn about new concepts by applying our knowledge learned from things in the past. The counterpart to declarative or explicit memory is nondeclarative memory or implicit memory.” —wikipedia

Episodic memory

“Episodic memory is the memory of every day events (such as times, location geography, associated emotions, and other contextual information) that can be explicitly stated or conjured. It is the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at particular times and places; for example, the party on one's 7th birthday. Along with semantic memory, it comprises the category of explicit memory, one of the two major divisions of long-term memory (the other being implicit memory). The term 'episodic memory' was coined by Endel Tulving in 1972, referring to the distinction between knowing and remembering: knowing is factual recollection (semantic) whereas remembering is a feeling that is located in the past (episodic).” —wikipedia

Decay Theory

“The Decay theory is a theory that proposes that memory fades due to the mere passage of time. Information is therefore less available for later retrieval as time passes and memory, as well as memory strength, wears away. When an individual learns something new, a neurochemical memory trace is created. However, over time this trace slowly disintegrates. Actively rehearsing information is believed to be a major factor counteracting this temporal decline. It is widely believed that neurons die off gradually as we age, yet some older memories can be stronger than most recent memories. Thus, decay theory mostly affects the short-term memory system, meaning that older memories (in long-term memory) are often more resistant to shocks or physical attacks on the brain.” —wikipedia


Memory in deeper consciousness which is connected to all experiences of self from infancy to wherever one is in present time, and as well from cellular and genetic memory, through cultural and family memory, to the collective memory of society, is also connected (theoretically) to cosmic and quantum information storage. Memory may be considered as form in nature, as function in biological life, and existing within the parameters of mathematics, geometry and physics including quantum mechanics.

The development of computers and artificial memory storage and retrieval adds a considerable degree of functionality to human existence in that such technology can reflect more accuracy and continuity of memory, and enable greater range of memory retrieval in spacetime and dimension. If information is never lost as in theory of physics, then all information is constantly in a dual interplay of static and dynamic process, and that information is never lost means there must be constant addition of memory storage space as time generates a larger complex of objects and events. DNA is an example of compression of memory as there is more information stored than what is evidently possible in only the atomic structure composing it.


➤ Study shows that memories pass through many transformation stages as they are encoded
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-10-memories-stages-encoded.html


Hard Problem of Consciousness and Simulated Reality
pHard_problem_of_consciousness
pSimulated reality

Synthetic intelligence (SI): “Is an alternative/opposite term for artificial intelligence emphasizing that the intelligence of machines need not be an imitation or in any way artificial; it can be a genuine form of intelligence. John Haugeland proposes an analogy with simulated diamonds and synthetic diamonds—only the synthetic diamond is truly a diamond. Synthetic means that which is produced by synthesis, combining parts to form a whole; colloquially, a human-made version of that which has arisen naturally. A synthetic intelligence would therefore be or appear human-made, but not a simulation. ” —wikipedia

Back to Top


Frame of Reference — Frame Dependence (psych.) — Frame (linear algebra)

Frame of reference
pFrame_of_reference
pFrame_(linear_algebra)

🖾 Quantum mechanics and the covariance of physical laws in quantum reference frames
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-08155-0

Abstract
“In physics, every observation is made with respect to a frame of reference. Although reference frames are usually not considered as degrees of freedom, in all practical situations it is a physical system which constitutes a reference frame. Can a quantum system be considered as a reference frame and, if so, which description would it give of the world? Here, we introduce a general method to quantise reference frame transformations, which generalises the usual reference frame transformation to a “superposition of coordinate transformations”. We describe states, measurement, and dynamical evolution in different quantum reference frames, without appealing to an external, absolute reference frame, and find that entanglement and superposition are frame-dependent features. The transformation also leads to a generalisation of the notion of covariance of dynamical physical laws, to an extension of the weak equivalence principle, and to the possibility of defining the rest frame of a quantum system.” —nature


Organic Cellular, Artificial Intelligence and Neurological Memory

The Frame Problem (AI logic)
https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/frame-problem/

➤ Scalable representation of time in the hippocampus
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-02-scalable-representation-hippocampus.html

Memory is the faculty of the brain by which data or information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed. It is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action. If past events could not be remembered, it would be impossible for language, relationships, or personal identity to develop.” —wikipedia

“Body memory (BM) is a hypothesis that the body itself is capable of storing memories, as opposed to only the brain. While experiments have demonstrated the possibility of cellular memory there are currently no known means by which tissues other than the brain would be capable of storing memories. Cellular memory (CM) is a parallel hypothesis to BM positing that memories can be stored outside the brain in all cells.” —wikipedia

Information theory in physics explores memory in higher dimensions than those accounting for biological systems. As information may be stored and transmitted in electronic, radio-magnetic and optical waves through a variety of mediums and material conductors, information may also exist deeper in subatomics and wider in spacetime. Nucleons carry information in their vibrations as nucleotides carry information in their structural arrangements. The universe humans perceive is a multiordinate information system wherein all objects and momentum, all function and operation, are one whole integrated information system, and not limited to linear time or closed spaces.

Quantum theory may depend on information being un-ending, unlimited, and having no final boundary condition, yet also on being mutable and inabsolute, thus necessarily involving transformation and recursion in information processes. Memory is what advances humans above other animals in allowing decision-making, devicive and deliberate action, even on a basis of free-will against instinctive and reflexive responses, and yet still in higher dimension of nature, humans can only default to the fact of their animal existence and to a higher order in nature yet unknown.


Frames of Reality: Cognition, Perception and Decision

Why do our decisions depend on how options are presented to us?
https://thedecisionlab.com/biases/framing-effect/

Cultural Evolution and Cultural Selection Theory
pCultural_evolution
pCultural_selection_theory

Cultural Evolution, historically also known as sociocultural evolution, was originally developed in the 19th century by anthropologists stemming from Charles Darwin's research on evolution. Today, cultural evolution has become the basis for a growing field of scientific research in the social sciences, including anthropology, economics, psychology and organizational studies. Previously, it was believed that social change resulted from biological adaptations, but anthropologists now commonly accept that social changes arise in consequence of a combination of social, evolutionary and biological influences.” —wikipedia

Cultural Selection Theory is an extension of memetics. In memetics, memes, much like biology's genes, are informational units passed through generations of culture. However, unlike memetics, cultural selection theory moves past these isolated memes to encompass selection processes, including continuous and quantitative parameters. Two other approaches to cultural selection theory are social contagion and evolutionary epistemology.” —wikipedia


🖾 Frames of Relativity: The Ladder Paradox

Ladder Paradox
“The ladder paradox (or barn-pole paradox) is a thought experiment in special relativity. It involves a ladder, parallel to the ground, travelling horizontally at relativistic speed (near the speed of light) and therefore undergoing a Lorentz length contraction. The ladder is imagined passing through the open front and rear doors of a garage or barn which is shorter than its rest length, so if the ladder was not moving it would not be able to fit inside. To a stationary observer, due to the contraction, the moving ladder is able to fit entirely inside the building as it passes through. On the other hand, from the point of view of an observer moving with the ladder, the ladder will not be contracted, and it is the building which will be Lorentz contracted to an even smaller length. Therefore, the ladder will not be able to fit inside the building as it passes through. This poses an apparent discrepancy between the realities of both observers.” —wikipedia
pLadder_paradox

Rest Frame: In both special relativity and general relativity it is essential to specify the rest frame of any time measurements, as the time that an event occurred is dependent on the rest frame of the observer. For this reason the timings of astronomical events such as supernovae are usually recorded in terms of when the light from the event reached Earth, as the real time that the event occurred depends on the rest frame chosen. For example, in the rest frame of a neutrino particle travelling from the Crab Nebula supernova to Earth, the supernova occurred in the 11th Century AD only a short while before the light reached Earth, but in Earth's rest frame the event occurred about 6300 years earlier.” —wikipedia

Cosmological Redshift: The universe is expanding, and that expansion stretches light traveling through space in a phenomenon known as cosmological redshift. The greater the redshift, the greater the distance the light has traveled. As a result, telescopes with infrared detectors are needed to see light from the first, most distant galaxies. —webbtelescope.org

Back to Top


🎓 Natural Logic Before Orders of the Logic of Man

△ Tripartite logic forms (A → B → C) are consistent with early humans operating cognitively on Object Permanence which becomes the statement Nothing comes from nothing. Reasoning advances from animism, totemism and empirical observation, to the rational-critical thinking and use of recursive language today. The Chimpanzee communication systems have 20 to 100 different vocalizations, and “by 600,000 years ago, the number of human distinct verbalizations used for communication must have been on par with the number of words in modern languages.”

Recursive language and modern imagination were acquired simultaneously —
70,000 years ago

https://phys.org/news/2019-08-recursive-language-modern-simultaneously-years.html

Prefrontal Synthesis
pPrefrontal_synthesis


Causal Knowledge, Causal Reasoning
pCausal_reasoning

➤ Researchers take aim at the evolution of traditional technologies
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-aim-evolution-traditional-technologies.html

➤ The role of causal knowledge in the evolution of traditional technology
https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(21)00161-5


➤ Nonadjacent dependency processing in monkeys, apes, and humans
https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/43/eabb0725

➤ Humans are born with brains 'prewired' to see words
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201022125525.htm

➤ Exploring links between infant vocabulary size and vocal interactions with caregivers
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/11/201125154815.htm

➤ Learning hierarchical sequence representations across human cortex and hippocampus
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-03-hierarchical-sequence-representations-human-cortex.html

aristotle_logic.png

Law of Identity

Infinite Divisibility Theory or “The whole is more than the sum of its parts.”, Conservation of Information Theory and Topological Quantum Theory transcend whatever system of logic either nature or man control or participate in by any reciprocal function. A system of logic exists non-accountable by any human means and non-sensical by any natural means.

(Fig. 25) aristotle_logic.png   Prior Analytics

Aristotle to Boolean Logic

The convergence between “filling in the blanks” and “figuring-out from limited data” demonstrates how events and objects in nature become symbols and ideograms leading to more complex language. The human mind transforms positive entropy in nature into negative entropy as rational structure, and so humans build a world that can withstand chaos and sustain survival. Yet, in a variety of ways, the human mind, as a function of an organic brain, is easily susceptible to distortion, confusion, memory loss, corruption of data, or other erratic processing of information.

  1. Natural Cause
  2. Human Cause
  3. Unidentified Cause
  4. No Cause

In Physics II.3 and Metaphysics V.2, Aristotle holds that there are four kinds of answers to why questions:

  1. Matter (the material cause of a change or movement): the aspect of the change or movement that is determined by the material that composes the moving or changing things. For a table, this might be wood; for a statue, it might be bronze or marble. —wikipedia
  2. Form (the formal cause of a change or movement): a change or movement caused by the arrangement, shape, or appearance of the thing changing or moving. Aristotle says, for example, that the ratio 2:1, and number in general, is the formal cause of the octave. —wikipedia
  3. Agent (the efficient or moving cause of a change or movement): consists of things apart from the thing being changed or moved, which interact so as to be an agency of the change or movement. For example, the efficient cause of a table is a carpenter, or a person working as one, and according to Aristotle the efficient cause of a boy is a father. —wikipedia
  4. Final (the final cause of a change or movement): a change or movement for the sake of a thing to be what it is. For a seed, it might be an adult plant; for a sailboat, it might be sailing; for a ball at the top of a ramp, it might be coming to rest at the bottom. —wikipedia

Posterior Analytics​: Knowledge of the fact differs from knowledge of the reason for the fact.❞
Physics: Cause… is after one manner said to be that, from which, being inherent, something is produced… But after another manner cause is form and paradigm (and this is the definition of the essence of a thing) and the genera of this. …But it happens… that there are also many causes of the same thing, and this is not from accident. …seed, a physician, he who consults, and, in short, he who makes, are all of them causes, as that whence the principle of mutation, or permanency, or motion is derived. …It is, however, necessary always to investigate the supreme cause of every thing …Further still, it is necessary to investigate the genera of genera; and the particulars of particulars… We should also explore the capacities of the capabilities, and the energizers of the things affected by energy.❞
Metaphysics: For it is owing to their wonder that men both now begin and at first began to philosophize; they wondered originally at the obvious difficulties, then advanced little by little and stated difficulties about the greater matters, e.g. about the phenomena of the moon and those of the sun and of the stars, and about the genesis of the universe. And a man who is puzzled and wonders thinks himself ignorant (whence even the lover of myth is in a sense a lover of Wisdom, for the myth is composed of wonders); therefore since they philosophized order to escape from ignorance, evidently they were pursuing science in order to know, and not for any utilitarian end.❞
—Aristotle 🍎 (384—322 BCE) Philosopher and Polymath

❝To unfold the secret laws and relations of those high faculties of thought by which all beyond the merely perceptive knowledge of the world and of ourselves is attained or matured, is a object which does not stand in need of commendation to a rational mind.❞
❝The general laws of Nature are not, for the most part, immediate objects of perception.❞
❝I am fully assured, that no general method for the solution of questions in the theory of probabilities can be established which does not explicitly recognize, not only the special numerical bases of the science, but also those universal laws of thought which are the basis of all reasoning, and which, whatever they may be as to their essence, are at least mathematical as to their form.❞
—George Boole 🍎 (1815—1864) Mathematician, Philosopher, and Logician

Quantum Logic

“A set of rules for reasoning about propositions that takes the principles of quantum theory into account. This research area and its name originated in a 1936 paper by Garrett Birkhoff and John von Neumann, who were attempting to reconcile the apparent inconsistency of classical logic with the facts concerning the measurement of complementary variables in quantum mechanics, such as position and momentum. Quantum logic can be formulated either as a modified version of propositional logic or as a noncommutative and non-associative many-valued (MV) logic. Quantum logic has been proposed as the correct logic for propositional inference generally, most notably by the philosopher Hilary Putnam, at least at one point in his career. This thesis was an important ingredient in Putnam's 1968 paper 'Is Logic Empirical?' in which he analysed the epistemological status of the rules of propositional logic. Putnam attributes the idea that anomalies associated to quantum measurements originate with anomalies in the logic of physics itself to the physicist David Finkelstein. However, this idea had been around for some time and had been revived several years earlier by George Mackey's work on group representations and symmetry.” —wikipedia

Back to Top


Argument from ignorance: Intentional Fallacy

  1. Diverting the argument to unrelated issues with a Ignoratio elenchi (Red herring)
  2. Insulting someone's character argumentum ad hominem
  3. Assume the conclusion of an argument, a kind of circular reasoning, also called begging the question petitio principii. In informal logic, an inference objection is an objection to an argument based not on any of its stated premises, but rather on the relationship between premise and contention.
  4. Making jumps in logic non sequitur
  5. Identifying a false cause and effect post hoc ergo propter hoc
  6. Asserting that everyone agrees argumentum ad populum (Bandwagon effect)
  7. Creating a false dilemma (either-or fallacy) in which the situation is oversimplified
  8. Selectively using facts card stacking
  9. Making false or misleading comparisons (false equivalence) and (False analogy)
  10. Generalizing quickly and sloppily (Hasty generalization)
  11. False premise is an incorrect proposition that forms the basis of an argument or syllogism.


“Argument from ignorance, also known as appeal to ignorance (in which ignorance represents a lack of contrary evidence), is a fallacy in informal logic. It asserts that a proposition is true because it has not yet been proven false or a proposition is false because it has not yet been proven true. This represents a type of false dichotomy in that it excludes the possibility that there may have been an insufficient investigation to prove that the proposition is either true or false. It also does not allow for the possibility that the answer is unknowable, only knowable in the future, or neither completely true nor completely false.”
—wikipedia

➤ Argument from ignorance
pArgument_from_ignorance
Heuristic
pHeuristic

❝Natural historians… look for regularities of given forms, but physicists seek the form of given regularities.❞
❝The picture of the natural world we all take for granted today, has one remarkable feature, which cannot be ignored in any study of the ancestry of science: it is a historical picture.❞
❝Certainly, every statement in a science should conceivably be capable of being called in question, and of being shown empirically to be unjustified; for only so can the science be saved from dogmatism.❞
❝Prediction is all very well; but we must make sense of what we predict. The mainspring of science is the conviction that by honest, imaginative enquiry we can build up a system of ideas about Nature which has some legitimate claim to 'reality'.❞
—Stephen Toulmin 🍎 (1922—2009) Science Philosopher


Probability and Statistics Distribution

Mean, Median, Mode, and Range
“The mean is the average you're used to, where you add up all the numbers and then divide by the number of numbers. The median is the middle value in the list of numbers. To find the median, your numbers have to be listed in numerical order from smallest to largest, so you may have to rewrite your list before you can find the median. The mode is the value that occurs most often. If no number in the list is repeated, then there is no mode for the list.”
https://www.purplemath.com/modules/meanmode.htm

Normal distribution
“A normal distribution is sometimes informally called a bell curve.” pNormal_distribution

Multimodal distribution
“In statistics, a bimodal distribution is a probability distribution with two different modes, which may also be referred to as a bimodal distribution. These appear as distinct peaks (local maxima) in the probability density function.”
pNormal_distribution


❝All the effects of Nature are only the mathematical consequences of a small number of immutable laws.❞
❝One may even say, strictly speaking, that almost all our knowledge is only probable; and in the small number of things that we are able to know with certainty, in the mathematical sciences themselves, the principal means of arriving at the truth—induction and analogy—are based on probabilities…❞
❝The word “chance” then expresses only our ignorance of the causes of the phenomena that we observe to occur and to succeed one another in no apparent order. Probability is relative in part to this ignorance, and in part to our knowledge.❞
❝Thus the system of the world only oscillates around a mean state from which it never departs except by a very small quantity. By virtue of its constitution and the law of gravity, it enjoys a stability that can be destroyed only by foreign causes, and we are certain that their action is undetectable from the time of the most ancient observations until our own day. This stability in the system of the world, which assures its duration, is one of the most notable among all phenomena, in that it exhibits in the heavens the same intention to maintain order in the universe that nature has so admirably observed on earth for the sake of preserving individuals and perpetuating species.❞
—Pierre-Simon Laplace 🍎(1749—1827) Mathematician, Physicist and Astronomer


Where data and evidence are held as the highest authority, the greatest risk of fallacy and/or corruption exists, and including in computer systems where no electronic or photo-mechanical transmission is absolutely perfect. The scientific method does not guarantee absolute precision; it provides at least about 97.5% accuracy between any two possibilities, but with incomplete human knowledge of the structure of matter and the structure of the cosmos, at least 2.5% is uncertain cause.

Soft Error
“A soft error is a type of error where a signal or datum is wrong. Errors may be caused by a defect, usually understood either to be a mistake in design or construction, or a broken component. A soft error is also a signal or datum which is wrong, but is not assumed to imply such a mistake or breakage. After observing a soft error, there is no implication that the system is any less reliable than before. One cause of soft errors is single event upsets from cosmic rays. —wikipedia”
pSoft_error


diag. 12
                   A=A B=B
Probability and Statistics Data —▶  97.5%
                   A=B B=C 
Superdeterminism —▶  2.5%  ◀— Retrocausality
(post-determinism)   C=C      (pre-determinism)

❝The scientific theorist is not to be envied. For Nature, or more precisely experiment, is an inexorable and not very friendly judge of his work. It never says “Yes” to a theory. In the most favorable cases it says “Maybe,” and in the great majority of cases simply “No.” If an experiment agrees with a theory it means for the latter “Maybe,” and if it does not agree it means “No.” Probably every theory will someday experience its “No”—most theories, soon after conception.❞
—Albert Einstein 🍎🍎(1879—1955) Theoretical Physicist and Scientific Philosopher.

Back to Top


🎓 Data Erosion and Uncertainty

venus_berekhat.png
(Fig. 26) venus_berekhat.png

Entropy in nature appears as a process of material and data erosion. Geochronology dates a pebble found at Berekhat Ram to about 230,000 years ago, but it is uncertain if was made by early humans or merely appears to be, it may not be materially eroded much from its original form or from what an early human may have formed it to represent, but it is effectively eroded by time and lack of data sources to compare.

giza_plateau.png
(Fig. 27) giza_plateau.png

Material and data composing the Sphinx at Giza and the Moai on Easter Island have apparently undergone far less erosion, their material and data structure is far more certain, but these samples are later and more data sources are available to compare. As well, in both cultures written languages exist to 'explain' the artifacts.

easter_island_moai.jpg
(Fig. 28) easter_island_moai.jpg

In places such as deserts erosion is slower, the series of zoomorphic pictographs indicates a 2D to 3D topological comprehension of reality the human mind can perceive, including the land and the sky.

nazca_lines_peru.jpg
(Fig. 29) nazca_lines_peru.jpg
ultima_thule.png
(Fig. 30) ultima_thule.png

The most distant object in space and time photographed close-up, Ultima Thule, at the edge of the solar system and dated to its origin 4.5 billion years ago, also appears to be an artifact of some anthropomorphic quality. Its color especially indicates vast erosion by radiation and chemical reduction, but its data structure as an object of matter and gravity is yet mostly intact. It is a natural assembly that appears man-made.

‿︵‿︵‿︵︵‿︵‿︵‿‿︵︵‿︵

Surfing the Solar and Interstellar Wind(s)

oumuamua_2017_interstellar_asteroid.jpg
(Fig. 31) oumuamua_2017_interstellar_asteroid.jpg (maple seed helicopter)

➤ Harvard astronomer argues that alien vessel paid us a visit
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-harvard-astronomer-alien-vessel-paid.html

The Oumuamua asteroid may be considered sentimentally as a 'gift' from nature, even possibly as a friendly stone-throw from another civilization, but the stretch of imagination that it is itself a piece of technology is a wild one except considering that primitive dugout canoes and sailboats are similarly formed. The object is only roughly known as to its shape and composition and appears somewhat similar to a wing specialized for spaceflight.

On Earth natural objects inspired man to build his first practical naval and aviary vessels. It is nature that has led man through the ages of his understandings of physics applied to technologies. Nature is often referred to affectionately in the feminine as like a mother teaching her offspring, and animal mothers on Earth are as progressively complex in their teaching as their species is in behaving within their ecosystems.

Oumuamua is reminiscent of the 'Monolith' spinning in two axes upon the stargate in 2001 Space Odyssey, a symbol of the function of nature of guiding man through nature's teachings. The revelation at the end of the journey is the direct connection between the life cycle of man and his solar-planetary system of Earth, moon and sun: The triangulation of light and of life.


Maybe Dark Matter Is More Than One Thing
If so, it could explain some inconsistencies in our observations.
“The standard model of cosmology successfully explains the gravitational growth of present-day galaxies and their clustering as driven by primordial fluctuations in an ocean of invisible particles with initially small random motions. But this cold dark matter might actually be a mixture of different particles.” —Avi Loeb (Theoretical Physicist)
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/maybe-dark-matter-is-more-than-one-thing/


Earth Aerodynamics and Interstellar Astrodynamics

⚫ Orbital Mechanics
pOrbital_mechanics

⚫ List of orbits
pList_of_orbits

⚫ Barycenter
pBarycenter

While spaces between most astrophysical objects are too wide for a regular orbit such as the planets around the sun, the fabric of gravitational space defines all objects in motion, and all objects are in motion to varying degrees according to gravity and inertia in varying distances of space. The solar system is in motion within the galaxy, passing through space wherein the objects between star systems may change their position, and even galaxies are in motion where they may collide. If the universe were reduced in size to the size of a basketball, reducing also the resolution of gravity and space between objects, one may observe a complex dynamic of objects as like a symphony of light, an amazing show of mechanical complexity full of regularities and irregularities according to the laws of motion.

⚫ Newton's laws of motion | Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica 1687
pNewton%27s_laws_of_motion

Electromagnetic radiation and heat differentials also provide a variety of mechanical forces operating on objects according to their mass and composition. We start with the classical mechanical view and introduce relativistic and quantum mechanical models which then we add into objective reality, and the basketball becomes much more of an amazing object than just a beautiful ball full of objects swirling around according to gravity. Which came first, space curved, or space curved by gravity? General and Special Relativity are yet lacking a resolution, but each separately yet stand as sensible. Quantum mechanics yet awaits its full integration into the whole model of physics, and for now it is yet constrained mostly to the atomic and local realism levels.


🐝 The Bumblebee: The Most Complex Flying Machine

➤ Bumblebees In Turbulence
https://physics.aps.org/articles/v9/6

➤ Wing flexibility enhances load-lifting capacity in bumblebees
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2013.0531

➤ Bumblebees minimize control challenges by combining active and passive modes in unsteady winds
https://www.nature.com/articles/srep35043


Occam's Razor and Abductive Reasoning

⚫ Abductive Reasoning (Induction, Deduction, Hypothesis)
pAbductive_reasoning
⚫ Occam's Razor (Entities should not be multiplied without necessity)
pOccam%27s_razor

❝We consider it a good principle to explain the phenomena by the simplest hypothesis possible.❞
❝It is clearly evident that most events of a widespread nature draw their causes from the enveloping heavens.❞
❝The heaven is spherical in shape, and moves as a sphere; the earth too is sensibly spherical in shape, when taken as a whole; in position it lies in the middle of the heavens very much like its center; in size and distance it has the ratio of a point to the sphere of the fixed stars; and it has no motion from place to place.❞
—Ptolemy 🍎🍎(90—168) Mathematician, Astronomer, Natural Philosopher and Geographer


☄ The Asteroid Field, Wide and Narrow Bands

Scientists find increase in asteroid impacts on ancient Earth by studying the Moon
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/190117142042.htm

Dinosaur-Killing Chicxulub Asteroid Came from Outer Part of Main Belt, Study Suggests
http://www.sci-news.com/space/chicxulub-asteroid-main-belt-09919.html

Comet or asteroid: What killed the dinosaurs and where did it come from?
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-comet-asteroid-dinosaurs.html

Physicists propose a new method for defending the Earth against cosmic impacts
Though they (asteroids) are not anticipated to hit Earth, even relatively small changes in their orbit could cause them to enter gravitational pockets called keyholes that can place them on a more direct trajectory toward Earth.
https://phys.org/news/2021-10-physicists-method-defending-earth-cosmic.html

Back to Top


🎓 🎈 Vacuum Energy Density

The universe is like a cave the size of an Olympic-sized swimming pool containing a few water droplets suspended in the space inside the pool, but all the water droplets add up to only a couple buckets of water. Of all that can be detected in range of optics, electromagnetics and gravitation, a lot more is going on out there, and its expanding in a way that makes it look like a big bubble, and so the question is what happens when the bubble pops, or does it, and if not, then what more complex reality are we not yet aware of, or only in an imaginary pursuit of?

“Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe. Its behavior is codified in Heisenberg's energy–time uncertainty principle. Still, the exact effect of such fleeting bits of energy is difficult to quantify. The vacuum energy is a special case of zero-point energy that relates to the quantum vacuum. Using the upper limit of the cosmological constant, the vacuum energy of free space has been estimated to be 10−9 joules (10−2 ergs) per cubic meter. However, in both quantum electrodynamics (QED) and stochastic electrodynamics (SED), consistency with the principle of Lorentz covariance and with the magnitude of the Planck constant suggest a much larger value of 10113 joules per cubic meter. This huge discrepancy is known as the cosmological constant problem.” —wikipedia

Perfect Vacuum

Perfect vacuum is an ideal state of no particles at all. It cannot be achieved in a laboratory, although there may be small volumes which, for a brief moment, happen to have no particles of matter in them. Even if all particles of matter were removed, there would still be photons and gravitons, as well as dark energy, virtual particles, and other aspects of the quantum vacuum.” —wikipedia

Stochastic Electrodynamics

Stochastic electrodynamics (SED) is an extension of the de Broglie–Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics, with the electromagnetic zero-point field (ZPF) playing a central role as the guiding pilot-wave. The theory is a deterministic nonlocal hidden-variable theory. It is distinct from other more mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics such as QED, a stochastic electrodynamics of the Copenhagen interpretation and Everett's many-worlds interpretation. SED describes energy contained in the electromagnetic vacuum at absolute zero as a stochastic, fluctuating zero-point field. The motion of a particle immersed in this stochastic zero-point radiation generally results in highly nonlinear, sometimes chaotic or emergent, behaviour. Modern approaches to SED consider the quantum properties of waves and particles as well-coordinated emergent effects resulting from deeper (sub-quantum) nonlinear matter-field interactions.” —wikipedia

“Given the posited emergent nature of quantum laws in SED, it has been argued that they form a kind of quantum equilibrium that has an analogous status to that of thermal equilibrium in classical dynamics. In principle therefore, SED allows other quantum non-equilibrium& distributions, for which the statistical predictions of quantum theory are violated. It is controversially argued that quantum theory is merely a special case of a much wider nonlinear physics, a physics in which non-local ( superluminal) signalling is possible, and in which the uncertainty principle can be violated. It has also been proposed that inertia is one such emergent law. The reported results are subject to considerable argument, with accusations that it leads to the possibility of anti-gravity, reactionless drives or free energy.” —wikipedia

Pilot wave theory

“The de Broglie–Bohm theory, also known as the pilot wave theory, Bohmian mechanics, Bohm's interpretation, and the causal interpretation, is an interpretation of quantum mechanics. In addition to a wavefunction on the space of all possible configurations, it also postulates an actual configuration that exists even when unobserved. The evolution over time of the configuration (that is, the positions of all particles or the configuration of all fields) is defined by a guiding equation that is the nonlocal part of the wave function. The evolution of the wave function over time is given by the Schrödinger equation. The theory is named after Louis de Broglie (1892–1987) and David Bohm (1917–1992).” —wikipedia

“The theory is deterministic and explicitly nonlocal: the velocity of any one particle depends on the value of the guiding equation, which depends on the configuration of the system given by its wave function; the latter depends on the boundary conditions of the system, which, in principle, may be the entire universe.” —wikipedia


Quantum non-equilibrium

diag. 13
Quantum Theory is a Special Case of a Much Wider Physics —wikipedia

                      ,,ggddY""""Ybbgg,,
                 ,agd""'              `""bg,
              ,gdP"                       "Ybg,
            ,dP"                             "Yb,
          ,dP"         _,,ddP"""Ybb,,_     Non-local, Deterministic
         ,8"         ,dP"'         `"Yb,         "8,
        ,8'        ,d"                 "b,        `8,
       ,8'        d"                     "b        `8,
       d'        d'        ,gPPRg,        `b        `b
       8         8        dP'   `Yb        8         8
       8         8        8)     (8 ━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━━ Relaxation
       8         8        Yb     dP        8         8     Many Worlds Interpretation
       8         Y,        "8ggg8"        ,P         8
       Y,         Ya                     aP         ,P
       `8,         "Ya        Local, Uncertain
        `8,          "Yb,_         _,dP"          ,8'
         `8a           `""YbbgggddP""'           a8'
          `Yba                                 adP'
            "Yba                             adY"
              `"Yba,                     ,adP"'
                 `"Y8ba,             ,ad8P"'
                      ``""YYbaaadPP""''

To Parity Non-conservation

 ❏ Many Worlds Interpretation

“The many-worlds interpretation (MWI) is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts that the universal wavefunction is objectively real, and that there is no wavefunction collapse. This implies that all possible outcomes of quantum measurements are physically realized in some world or universe. In contrast to some other interpretations, such as the Copenhagen interpretation, the evolution of reality as a whole in MWI is rigidly deterministic. Many-worlds is also called the relative state formulation or the Everett interpretation, after physicist Hugh Everett, who first proposed it in 1957.” —wikipedia

“In many-worlds, the subjective appearance of wavefunction collapse is explained by the mechanism of quantum decoherence. Decoherence approaches to interpreting quantum theory have been widely explored and developed since the 1970s, and have become quite popular. MWI is now considered a mainstream interpretation along with the other decoherence interpretations, collapse theories (including the Copenhagen interpretation), and hidden variable theories such as Bohmian mechanics.” —wikipedia

❝The physical reality is assumed to be the wave function of the whole universe itself.❞
❝[The Many-worlds interpretation is the] only completely coherent approach to explaining both the contents of quantum mechanics and the appearance of the world.❞
❝As an analogy one can imagine an intelligent amoeba with a good memory. As time progresses the amoeba is constantly splitting, each time the resulting amoebas having the same memories as the parent. Our amoeba hence does not have a life line, but a life tree.❞
—Hugh Everett 🍎 (1930—1982) Physicist


Bohmian Mechanics
https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qm-bohm/

“The many-worlds interpretation implies that there are very many universes, perhaps infinitely many. It is one of many multiverse hypotheses in physics and philosophy. MWI views time as a many-branched tree, wherein every possible quantum outcome is realised. This is intended to resolve some paradoxes of quantum theory, such as the EPR paradox and Schrödinger's cat, since every possible outcome of a quantum event exists in its own universe.” —wikipedia


Objective-collapse theory
pObjective-collapse_theory

“Objective-collapse theories, also known as models of spontaneous wave function collapse or dynamical reduction models, were formulated as a response to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics, to explain why and how quantum measurements always give definite outcomes, not a superposition of them as predicted by the Schrödinger equation, and more generally how the classical world emerges from quantum theory. The fundamental idea is that the unitary evolution of the wave function describing the state of a quantum system is approximate. It works well for microscopic systems, but progressively loses its validity when the mass / complexity of the system increases.” —wikipedia

➤ Test of wave function collapse suggests gravity is not the answer
https://phys.org/news/2020-09-function-collapse-gravity.html

➤ What Does Quantum Theory Actually Tell Us about Reality?
https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/what-does-quantum-theory-actually-tell-us-about-reality/

Double Slit Experiment

diag. 14 Electron Beam Gun   

           electrons        interference pattern
     ||||||||||||  ▬❯  ||  ▬❯  | | | |
                  double slit   screen

Photons or particles of matter 
(like an electron) produce a 
wave pattern when two slits are used

Double-slit experiment
pDouble-slit_experiment

Quantum Darwinism

Pointer state: “In quantum Darwinism and similar theories, pointer states are quantum states, sometimes of a measuring apparatus, if present, that are less perturbed by decoherence than other states, and are the quantum equivalents of the classical states of the system after decoherence has occurred through interaction with the environment. 'Pointer' refers to the reading of a recording or measuring device, which in old analog versions would often have a gauge or pointer display.” —wikipedia

Quantum Decoherence: “If a quantum system were perfectly isolated, it would maintain coherence indefinitely, but it would be impossible to manipulate or investigate it. If it is not perfectly isolated, for example during a measurement, coherence is shared with the environment and appears to be lost with time; a process called quantum decoherence. As a result of this process, quantum behavior is apparently lost, just as energy appears to be lost by friction in classical mechanics.” —wikipedia

Quantum Darwinism, an Idea to Explain Objective Reality, Passes First Tests
Three experiments have vetted quantum Darwinism, a theory that explains how quantum possibilities can give rise to objective, classical reality.
https://www.quantamagazine.org/quantum-darwinism-an-idea-to-explain-objective-reality-passes-first-tests-20190722/

Back to Top


A Cave is Not a Thing

crosshatch_symbols_tallysheets.jpg
(Fig. 32) Blombos Cave crosshatch_symbols_tallysheets
computer spreadsheets
.jpg

Today's humans live in a cave of a different kind than primitive man, more akin to Plato's allegory of the cave. The television, Internet, smart-phone, and the computer game console, project shadows on the wall of the perfect cave of the mind. The computer-age generated better knowledge among humans and a benevolent public social order, and it still fulfills that purpose for many, but it also reveals how extensive are the levels of antisocial and anti-rational behavior across human society.

paleolithic_cave_paintings_44k_bce.jpg

The Subatomic Cave

“Super—positioning cannot be decoded without a variance cycle (swing) to select one position from the other, one being subject, the other being object.” In one cave the proton is itself one proton, and in the other cave, each proton is itself every other proton, thus both uncertainty and incompleteness resolve each other. The first etchings on soft rocks tally a few items in man's environment, proceeding to a structured organization of items, to a massive data bank of every item knowable, and still the backdrop of the universe is expanding and contracting to some singular item that defines all items and itself — a cave is not a thing; it is the form of the space defining and defined by its boundaries.

(Fig. 33) Maros-Pangkep Cave paleolithic_cave_paintings_44k_bce.jpg

 ❏ Simulation Hypothesis

“The simulation hypothesis or simulation theory is the proposal that all of reality, including the Earth and the rest of the universe, could in fact be an artificial simulation, such as a computer simulation. Some versions rely on the development of a simulated reality, a proposed technology that would be able to convince its inhabitants that the simulation was 'real'. The simulation hypothesis bears a close resemblance to various other skeptical scenarios from throughout the history of philosophy. The suggestion that such a hypothesis is compatible with all of our perceptual experiences is thought to have significant epistemological consequences in the form of philosophical skepticism.”
—wikipedia

“There is a long philosophical and scientific history to the underlying thesis that reality is an illusion. This skeptical hypothesis can be traced back to antiquity; for example, to the 'Butterfly Dream' of Zhuangzi, or the Indian philosophy of Maya, or in Ancient Greek philosophy Anaxarchus and Monimus likened existing things to a scene-painting and supposed them to resemble the impressions experienced in sleep or madness. A version of the hypothesis was also theorised as a part of a philosophical argument by René Descartes.” —wikipedia

❝Everything is self-evident.❞
❝Except our own thoughts, there is nothing absolutely in our power.❞
❝The senses deceive from time to time, and it is prudent never to trust wholly those who have deceived us even once.❞
❝Divide each difficulty into as many parts as is feasible and necessary to resolve it.❞
❝The two operations of our understanding, intuition and deduction, on which alone we have said we must rely in the acquisition of knowledge.❞
—René Descartes 🍎 (1596—1650) Philosopher, Mathematician, and Scientist

Neither does the universe lie nor can it be fooled. The human mind perceives a core deception in its own mortality, dependent infancy and sexual reproductive drive. As these conditions exist as functions in the deepest realm of the brain, they persist through all stages of life fundamental to all human operation. The self-preservation and reproductive hormones, codons and ganglia are powerful enough to flush memory, re-structure memory, rendering the human an easily gullible and brainwashable species. As a primarily social animal, the condition of susceptibility to deceit easily becomes malicious social order and destructive disorder.

❝In order to be able to deceive intentionally, an animal must have a sense of how its actions appear to another individual. Such an ability requires self-awareness.❞
—Richard Leakey 🍎 (1944—2022) Palaeoanthropologist

Back to Top


Kinematics

Kinematics is a subfield of physics, developed in classical mechanics, that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the forces that cause them to move.Kinematics, as a field of study, is often referred to as the geometry of motion and is occasionally seen as a branch of mathematics. A kinematics problem begins by describing the geometry of the system and declaring the initial conditions of any known values of position, velocity and/or acceleration of points within the system. Then, using arguments from geometry, the position, velocity and acceleration of any unknown parts of the system can be determined. The study of how forces act on bodies falls within kinetics, not kinematics. For further details, see analytical dynamics.” —wikipedia
pKinematics
Kinetic energy
pKinetic_energy
Potential energy
pPotential_energy

Kinetics

In physics and engineering, kinetics is the branch of classical mechanics that is concerned with the relationship between motion and its causes, specifically, forces and torques. Since the mid-20th century, the term dynamics (or analytical dynamics) has largely superseded kinetics in physics textbooks, though the term is still used in engineering. In plasma physics, kinetics refers to the study of continua in velocity space. This is usually in the context of non-thermal (non-Maxwellian) velocity distributions, or processes that perturb thermal distributions. These kinetic plasmas cannot be adequately described with fluid equations. The term kinetics is also used to refer to chemical kinetics, particularly in chemical physics and physical chemistry.

Elastic Action under Gravity

“The modern theory of elasticity generalizes Hooke's law to say that the strain (deformation) of an elastic object or material is proportional to the stress applied to it. However, since general stresses and strains may have multiple independent components, the proportionality factor may no longer be just a single real number, but rather a linear map (a tensor) that can be represented by a matrix of real numbers.” —wikipedia

Pendulum Action under Gravity

“The simple gravity pendulum is an idealized mathematical model of a pendulum. This is a weight (or bob) on the end of a massless cord suspended from a pivot, without friction. When given an initial push, it will swing back and forth at a constant amplitude. Real pendulums are subject to friction and air drag, so the amplitude of their swings declines.”
—wikipedia

Minority interpretations of quantum mechanics
pMinority_interpretations_of_quantum_mechanics

THE BIG W   below | above

Superdeterminism, like a bow and arrow in spacetime, combining spring and swing actions between spacetime locations and material objects. The wave vibration is both subatomic and macro-cosmic. The present is a composite of objects and forms projecting from the past and from the future, and also projecting forms and objects forward and backward in time.

W = Mechanical Work, C = Constant of Integration

diag. 15

Wave Function receding  W - - - > confluence <- - - W approaching

 ◀——————————— Swing———————————▶
▲
|   `7MMF'     A     `7MF'
|     `MA     ,MA     ,V  
|      VM:   ,VVM:   ,V   
|       MM.  M' MM.  M'   
|       `MM A'  `MM A'    
|        :MM;    :MM;     
|         VF      VF      
▼ Spring              ⛏️ C(rossbow)

If you look at a ferris wheel edge on, the
chairs appear to be elevators going up and down.

“Work is the energy transferred to or from an object via the application of force along a displacement. In its simplest form, it is often represented as the product of force and displacement. A force is said to do positive work if (when applied) it has a component in the direction of the displacement of the point of application. A force does negative work if it has a component opposite to the direction of the displacement at the point of application of the force. For example, when a ball is held above the ground and then dropped, the work done by the gravitational force on the ball as it falls is equal to the weight of the ball (a force) multiplied by the distance to the ground (a displacement). When the force F is constant and the angle between the force and the displacement s is θ, then the work done is given by: W = F s cos ⁡ θ. Work is a scalar quantity, so it has only magnitude and no direction. Work transfers energy from one place to another, or one form to another. The SI unit of work is the joule (J), the same unit as for energy.” —wikipedia

❝According to quantum physics, no matter how much information we obtain or how powerful our computing abilities, the outcomes of physical processes cannot be predicted with certainty because they are not determined with certainty.❞
—Stephen Hawking 🍎(1942—2018) Theoretical Physicist and Cosmologist.

Quantum indeterminacy

“Quantum indeterminacy is the apparent necessary incompleteness in the description of a physical system, that has become one of the characteristics of the standard description of quantum physics. Prior to quantum physics, it was thought that
(a) a physical system had a determinate state which uniquely determined all the values of its measurable properties, and conversely
(b) the values of its measurable properties uniquely determined the state.” —wikipedia


➤ A billion tiny pendulums could detect the universe's missing mass
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201014160510.htm


diag. 16

cold vacuum outside
  ⚫ fulcrum
 / \
/___\ swing motion
|---| suspended box open at bottom, a cold vacuum inside
♒    hot-cold differential from left to right
♒ heat waves rise on left side, pushing box to left
🔥 heat source     as waves move right, box swings right
           heat wave frequency determines oscillation period and amplitude

•gravitational potential energy: U = mgy 
•conservation of total energy: E = U + K = constant 
•small amplitude swing period:  = 2l/g 
•potential energy keeps track of work done against conservative forces. 
•potential and kinetic energy transfer back and forth in swing motion
while total energy is conserved. 
•since a pendulum is a nonlinear oscillator, 
it's oscillation period depends on swing amplitude. 

The Universe as an Elastic Pendulum Suspended from Beyond

Exploring quantum gravity and entanglement using pendulums
https://phys.org/news/2021-09-exploring-quantum-gravity-entanglement-pendulums.html

Atomic nuclei in the quantum swing
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/02/210219111319.htm

Chaos theory
pChaos_theory

🎲 Deterministic system
pDeterministic_system
🎲 Probability theory
pProbability_theory

Lorenz system
Chaos: When the present determines the future, but the approximate present does not approximately determine the future.
pLorenz_system

❝We see that each surface is really a pair of surfaces, so that, where they appear to merge, there are really four surfaces. Continuing this process for another circuit, we see that there are really eight surfaces etc and we finally conclude that there is an infinite complex of surfaces, each extremely close to one or the other of two merging surfaces.❞
❝If the flap of a butterfly’s wings can be instrumental in generating a tornado, it can equally well be instrumental in preventing a tornado. ( Butterfly Effect)❞
—Edward Norton Lorenz 🍎(1917—2008) Mathematician and Meteorologist

chaos.png  The Robotic Arm of Chaos

“In physics and mathematics, in the area of dynamical systems, a double pendulum is a pendulum with another pendulum attached to its end, and is a simple physical system that exhibits rich dynamic behavior with a strong sensitivity to initial conditions. The motion of a double pendulum is governed by a set of coupled ordinary differential equations and is chaotic.” —wikipedia

pendulum_x-ray_universe.jpg
(Fig. 34) pendulum_x-ray_universe.jpg

Chaotic Universe Theory

  1. Phase Space of Chaotic System - Double Pendulum
  2. X-Ray Cosmic Background energized ionized plasma.
  3. Digital simulation showing the large-scale distribution of matter, with filaments and knots.
  4. Cosmic Microwave Background temperature fluctuations.

Cosmic Gravitational Wave Background (temperature fluctuations)

➤ Have pulsars provided a glimpse of gravitational waves from merging supermassive black holes?
https://physicsworld.com/a/have-pulsars-provided-a-glimpse-of-gravitational-waves-from-merging-supermassive-black-holes/

“Detectors like Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), which captured the first gravitational wave over five years ago, are built to sense relatively loud, high-frequency waves. But scientists predict that there is also an ambient murmur of subtle, low-frequency ripples constantly flowing through everything in the universe, including Earth.” —vice media

Gravitational matter and wave frequency (information transmission) may prove to be the quantum mechanism and medium by which 5D reality is generated and sustained across spacetime, local and distant. A universe that is less of chaos and more of a mathematical system such as represented in the infinite recursive Mandelbrot set. Add mirrored parity and the universe sustains its existence similar to human double-reflective consciousness.


diag. 17   z(n+1) = z(n)^2 + c
                                      .                   
                                     ..                     
                                   .####                    
                            .     # .##.                    
                             ##*###############.            
                           #.##################             
                          .######################.          
                 ######.  #######################           
               ##########.######################            
##############################################              
               ##########.######################            
                 ######.  #######################           
                          .######################.          
                           #.##################             
                             ##*###############.            
                            .     # .##.                    
                                   .####                    
                                     ..                     
Mandelbrot set

➤ A mathematical framework enables accurate characterization of shapes
https://phys.org/news/2021-01-mathematical-framework-enables-accurate-characterization.html

Back to Top


🎓 Schrödinger's Paradox and Quantum logic
The Paradox of Life:

A bit beyond perception's reach
I sometimes believe I see
that Life is two locked boxes, each
containing the other's key.

—Piet Hein, mathematician, physicist

❝The world is given to me only once, not one existing and one perceived. Subject and object are only one. The barrier between them cannot be said to have broken down as a result of recent experience in the physical sciences, for this barrier does not exist.❞
❝Every man's world picture is and always remains a construct of his mind and cannot be proved to have any other existence.❞
❝For eternally and always there is only now, one and the same now; the present is the only thing that has no end.❞
❝What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space.❞
❝Quantum physics thus reveals a basic oneness of the universe.❞
—Erwin Schrödinger 🍎🍎 (1887—1961) Physicist and Cosmologist

potential_kinetic_nrg_flow_separation_3_body_prob_atomic_decay.jpg
(Fig. 35) potential_kinetic_nrg
_flow_separation
_3_body_prob_
atomic_decay.jpg

In isotope decay, quantum wave function collapse may be referred back to standard physics swing, flow separation, and (2,3) body problems, and such things as the Magnus effect.

➤ Deconstructing Schrödinger's cat
https://phys.org/news/2020-02-deconstructing-schrdinger-cat.html

The Physics Behind Schrödinger's Cat Paradox
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/8/130812-physics-schrodinger-erwin-google-doodle-cat-paradox-science/

➤ Physicists Develop Error-Correcting Schrödinger’s Cat
http://www.sci-news.com/physics/
error-correcting-schrodingers-cat-08746.html


“A cat is placed in a steel box along with a Geiger counter, a vial of poison, a hammer, and a radioactive substance. When the radioactive substance decays, the Geiger detects it and triggers the hammer to release the poison, which subsequently kills the cat. The radioactive decay is a random process, and there is no way to predict when it will happen. Physicists say the atom exists in a state known as a superposition—both decayed and not decayed at the same time. Until the box is opened, an observer doesn't know whether the cat is alive or dead—because the cat's fate is intrinsically tied to whether or not the atom has decayed and the cat would, as Schrödinger put it, be living and dead … in equal parts until it is observed. In other words, until the box was opened, the cat's state is completely unknown and therefore, the cat is considered to be both alive and dead at the same time until it is observed.”

There may be no change of state or orientation, but both equalities may have already existed in same state and orientation before observed. Only the observer changed state and orientation and associated two equalities. Rather than the superposition collapse; the observer may already have been in the collapsed state such as between high and low energy or entropy.

The determinant is consistent with negative entropy; the indeterminate is consistent with positive entropy. The paradox is resolved in that negative entropy will always present a higher energy state. To conserve entropy is to charge energy, potential kinetic energy or otherwise stored chemically or atomically, and so exists a law of conservation of entropy. Laws of Thermodynamics reduce to the function of temperature, and so entropy may be considered a temperature differential in an order- chaos differential, and as an information differential according to Information Theory. Stored entropy is energy and information in a volume of temperature.

It is necessary to reject the Law of Identity in Quantum theory. An apple is an object, an apple is a subject, and an apple is also a function, but the identity of the apple breaks down as like Schrödinger's cat. In physics, functions have no inherent motive, they just follow whatever laws are operating, and may be considered as a momentum, but in biological beings, functions do have motives, and biological beings are a self-programmed (by natural selection) resistance to the chaos of the universe. Life opposes death else it ceases to exist, but in physical terms life is simply a momentum naturally toward higher evolution in operation of negative entropy. Natural selection generates a complex of negative/low entropy over positive/high entropy. For most living things natural selection is simply the path of least resistance which aligns with what are physical non-living objects that do not apply an intelligence to their motion.

perturbation_convection_acceleration.jpg
(Fig. 36) perturbation_convection_acceleration.jpg

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics defines self-consistency of temperature, but eventually all the laws may have to shift down by one to account for information-energy input, resolving in 5 laws in total. The 5th physical dimension must have temperature and store information; it must also have mass and gravity according to a different or seperate vacuum. The inner and outer universe may be defined by the vacuum density, temperature or energy density and gravitational or mass density. What we refer to as 'singularity' may actually be a spacial dimension. The acceleration of expansion of the universe may be an exponential curve toward a polar flip of spacetime — Or it could be toward a catastrophic vacuum decay.

Where perturbation is as natural as convection and acceleration the universe may be seen as greater in dynamic than what current laws bound it to. The universe must have a heat input from outside itself, pushing down the laws of thermodynamics and enabling something like the impossible Perpetual Motion machine in a greater dimension of physics. The consideration of the infinite includes energy, volume, mass, density, not matter or spacetime known within the universe, but inertia may provide a Coriolis-effect-like workable physics with the outside.

❝If laws are just properties of objects, how can those laws continue to operate when the object is not really there? — The Big Bang theory says nothing about what banged, why it banged, or what happened before it banged. — In the context of general relativity, space almost is a substance. It can bend and twist and stretch, and probably the best way to think about space is to just kind of imagine a big piece of rubber that you can pull and twist and bend. — Particles really do have the possibility of, in some sense, being in more than one place at one time. From a theoretical point of view, it is very hard to imagine how gravity could avoid being quantized. — If we assume there is no maximum possible entropy for the universe, then any state can be a state of low entropy.❞
—Alan Guth 🍎 (1947—) Theoretical Physicist and Cosmologist


Continuum Mechanics

“Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles. Modeling an object as a continuum assumes that the substance of the object completely fills the space it occupies. Modeling objects in this way ignores the fact that matter is made of atoms, and so is not continuous; however, on length scales much greater than that of inter-atomic distances, such models are highly accurate. Fundamental physical laws such as the conservation of mass, the conservation of momentum, and the conservation of energy may be applied to such models to derive differential equations describing the behavior of such objects, and some information about the material under investigation is added through constitutive relations.” —wikipedia

“Continuum mechanics deals with physical properties of solids and fluids which are independent of any particular coordinate system in which they are observed. These physical properties are then represented by tensors, which are mathematical objects that have the required property of being independent of coordinate system. These tensors can be expressed in coordinate systems for computational convenience. Materials, such as solids, liquids and gases, are composed of molecules separated by space. On a microscopic scale, materials have cracks and discontinuities. However, certain physical phenomena can be modeled assuming the materials exist as a continuum, meaning the matter in the body is continuously distributed and fills the entire region of space it occupies. A continuum is a body that can be continually sub-divided into infinitesimal elements with properties being those of the bulk material.” —wikipedia


“Nature Abhors a Vacuum” (Psych. Metaphysics, Law of Attraction)

“A postulate attributed to Aristotle, who articulated a belief, later criticized by the atomism of Epicurus and Lucretius, that nature contains no vacuums because the denser surrounding material continuum would immediately fill the rarity of an incipient void. He also argued against the void in a more abstract sense (as separable), for example, that by definition a void, itself, is nothing, and following Plato, nothing cannot rightly be said to exist.” —wikipedia

Magical Thinking: “or superstitious thinking, is the belief that unrelated events are causally connected despite the absence of any plausible causal link between them, particularly as a result of supernatural effects. Examples include the idea that personal thoughts can influence the external world without acting on them, or that objects must be causally connected if they resemble each other or came in contact with each other in the past. Magical thinking is a type of fallacious thinking and is a common source of invalid causal inferences. Unlike the confusion of correlation with causation, magical thinking does not require the events to be correlated.”

In anthropology (the earliest research), the posited causality is between religious ritual, prayer, sacrifice, or the observance of a taboo, and an expected benefit or recompense. Later research indicates that magical thinking is also common in modern societies. In psychology, magical thinking is the belief that one's thoughts by themselves can bring about effects in the world or that thinking something corresponds with doing it. These beliefs can cause a person to experience an irrational fear of performing certain acts or having certain thoughts because of an assumed correlation between doing so and threatening calamities. In psychiatry, magical thinking is a disorder of thought content; here it denotes the false belief that one's thoughts, actions, or words will cause or prevent a specific consequence in some way that defies commonly understood laws of causality.” —wikipedia

Magical Thinking
pMagical_thinking

Synchronicity
pSynchronicity


Placebo

“The idea of a placebo effect—a therapeutic outcome derived from an inert treatment—was discussed in 18th century psychology but became more prominent in the 20th century. An influential 1955 study entitled The Powerful Placebo firmly established the idea that placebo effects were clinically important, and were a result of the brain's role in physical health.” —wikipedia

Osteopathy

“One integral tenet of osteopathy is that problems in the body's anatomy can affect its proper functioning. Another tenet is the body's innate ability to heal itself. Many of osteopathic medicine's manipulative techniques are aimed at reducing or eliminating the impediments to proper structure and function so the self-healing mechanism can assume its role in restoring a person to health.” —wikipedia

◆◇◆◇◆◇◆◇◆◇◆◇◆◇◆◇◆◇◆◇◆◇◆

Lucy (Australopithecus)

“The Lucy specimen is an early australopithecine and is dated to about 3.2 million years ago. The skeleton presents a small skull akin to that of non-hominin apes, plus evidence of a walking-gait that was bipedal and upright, akin to that of humans (and other hominins); this combination supports the view of human evolution that bipedalism preceded increase in brain size. … Lucy acquired her name from the 1967 song Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds by the Beatles, which was played loudly and repeatedly in the expedition camp all evening after the excavation team's first day of work on the recovery site.” —wikipedia

🎼 Link to Local MIDI file: midi.giflucy_in_sky_with_diamonds_beatles.mid

Back to Top


🎓 Cycle Variance — Offset — Trinary Systems

sunspot_cycle_nanoflares.jpg
(Fig. 37) sunspot_cycle_
nanoflares.jpg
apep_triple_star.jpg
(Fig. 38) apep_triple_star.jpg
jupiter_lightning.jpg
(Fig. 39) jupiter_lightning.jpg
kuiper_belt_oort_cloud.jpg
(Fig. 40) kuiper_belt_
oort_cloud.jpg

Jupiter and the sun are offset on different orbital planes as if each is its own solar system. The center of gravity between the two is just above the sun. Jupiter rotates on its axis once in slightly less than 10 hours and the sun once every 27 days. One-half of the sunspot cycle is 11 years and Jupiter's cycle of orbit with the sun is 12 years. Most stars the size of the sun are binary star systems, and the solar system is found to include a third mass extending out beyond the Kuiper belt that explains the balance of structure and dynamics of the whole system, but exactly what that mass is is yet unknown.


Gradual onset of the Maunder Minimum revealed by high-precision carbon-14 analyses
an extreme weakening of solar activity could cause severe climate, causing massive reductions in crop yields in some regions. During the past decade, the Sun’s activity has tended to decline, raising concerns that the Sun might be heading for the next grand minimum.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-84830-5

Solar Superstorms: Planning for an Internet Apocalypse
https://www.ics.uci.edu/~sabdujyo/papers/sigcomm21-cme.pdf


The solar system has become man's new cave, and within the nearest reach man paints pictures of utopian space civilization and adds a few 'da Vinci-like' models of technology that doesn't yet exist. Pursuit of advance of civilization and technology is not widely considered a collective property or ambition of humankind, but more of cultural, ideological and industrial competition. Space is viewed either as an amusement park in the sky, another territory to conquer, or a vantage point to apply more authoritarianism. It is yet a strange unlikeliness that no sign of life can be found anywhere else near or far in the universe. Any civilization advanced from here would have to had achieved a higher moral existence in its social structure. It is also a strange unlikeliness that a population of humans will proceed much further on a pathway of moral conflict.

Cyclical variations, offsets of mechanical dynamics, and trinary motions seem to be generating an exponential graduation to a critical sequence of events that will challenge the human population with an extreme condition between survival and extinction. The same old truth will remain the same for a bottleneck population of humans, that is, they will still be the same species with the same conditions and will again be threatened with self-annihilation.

Back to Top


🎓 The Evolution of Things

composite_of_evolutions.jpg
(Fig. 41) composite_of_evolutions.jpg [ BIG HISTORY ]
  1. Evolution of time. Separate from all other dimensions time has its own mechanics.
  2. Evolution of matter. Subatomics to atomics, isotopes, to 2 trillion galaxies in the observable universe.
  3. Evolution of objects of matter. Elements synthesized in stars to chemical compounds in gases, liquids and solids.
  4. Evolution of organic elements bonded in ionic and covalent bonds forming organic molecules and macromolecules.
  5. The Great Rift Valley of Earth, where all geological and biological time begins and extends across the globe.
  6. The sun's interstellar cloud medium of radiation, solids and gasses, travelling around the galaxy.
  7. Evolution of Earth's life-supporting oceanic, geomagnetic, polar, atmospheric and orbital radio composition.
  8. Zealandia, the 8th Continent, where volcanic vents, currents and cyclones maintain the original evolutionary dynamic of Pangea.

African humid period
pAfrican_humid_period

Innovative Humans Thrived in Water-Rich Kalahari 105,000 Years Ago
http://www.sci-news.com/archaeology/kalahari-humans-09512.html

Past river activity in northern Africa reveals multiple Sahara greenings
The analysis of sediment cores from the Mediterranean Sea combined with Earth system models tells the story of major environmental changes in North Africa over the last 160,000 years.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/01/210129110934.htm

Fossil rivers of the Sahara tell of the threat of warming
These rivers are essential for reconstructing past climates, as they allow us to determine the quantities of flowing water at the time, as well as the quantities and frequencies of rainfall,
https://phys.org/news/2021-10-fossil-rivers-sahara-threat.html

Geologists Find Million-Year-Old Plant Fossils Deep Beneath Greenland Ice Sheet
The deep ice at Camp Century in northwestern Greenland entirely melted at least once within the last million years and was covered with vegetation, including moss and perhaps trees
http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/greenland-plant-fossils-09455.html

Greenhouse and Icehouse Earth
“Throughout the history of the Earth, the planet's climate has been fluctuating between two dominant climate states: the greenhouse Earth and the icehouse Earth. These two climate states last for millions of years and should not be confused with glacial and interglacial periods, which occur only during an icehouse period and tend to last less than 1 million years. There are five known great glaciations in Earth's climate history; the main factors involved in changes of the paleoclimate are believed to be the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, changes in the Earth's orbit, long-term changes in the solar constant, and oceanic and orogenic changes due to tectonic plate dynamics. Greenhouse and icehouse periods have profoundly shaped the evolution of life on Earth.” —wikipedia
pGreenhouse_and_icehouse_Earth

Supercontinent Cycle
“The supercontinent cycle is the quasi-periodic aggregation and dispersal of Earth's continental crust. There are varying opinions as to whether the amount of continental crust is increasing, decreasing, or staying about the same, but it is agreed that the Earth's crust is constantly being reconfigured. One complete supercontinent cycle is said to take 300 to 500 million years. Continental collision makes fewer and larger continents while rifting makes more and smaller continents.” —wikipedia
pSupercontinent_cycle

➤ Study: First Flowering Plants Appeared in Jurassic Period or Even Earlier
http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/jurassic-flowering-plants-09334.html

Coelacanths Are Not ‘Living Fossils,’ New Study Shows
http://www.sci-news.com/biology/coelacanth-genes-09341.html

❝Sometime during the many millions of years that have elapsed since mammalian faunas came into existence, some sort of island crossed from West Africa to South America.❞
❝Stone tools are fossilized human behavior.❞
—Louis Leakey 🍎 (1903—1972) Paleoanthropologist and Archaeologist


Energy mapping of the genetic code and genomic domains: implications for code evolution and molecular Darwinism
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/
quarterly-reviews-of-biophysics/article/energy-mapping-of-the-genetic-code-and-genomic-domains-implications-for-code-evolution-and-molecular-darwinism/E8B68B6375B2FD12378DF68A250477DB#

Researchers Capture High-Resolution 3D Images of Human Chromosomes
http://www.sci-news.com/genetics/high-resolution-3d-images-human-chromosomes-09072.html

Turbulent era sparked leap in human behavior, adaptability 320,000 years ago
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201021140919.htm

Lake Victoria's Lightning-Fast Origin of Species
https://www.nytimes.com/1996/08/27/science/lake-victoria-s-lightning-fast-origin-of-species.html

Origin of life insight: Peptides can form without amino acids
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190710132019.htm


The Evolution of Evolution

Evolution is an idea that began with ancient philosophy long before it became the foundation of modern science. A thermodynamic system is the only kind of reality we know so far, and no perfect vacuum or perfect absence of temperature can exist within it. A thermodynamic system has energy, entropy, and enthalpy, and according to the Greek meanings, Energy means work, Entropy means transformation, and Enthalpy means heat.

A living system cannot cease evolving; there is only evolution and extinction among living things. Life cannot exist in a static state, and as there is consistency between the living system and the universe, so it is that the universe continuously evolves. Evolution is existence, else absolute stasis does not exist and does not exist either way except in the logic that a mortal mind can apply. What exists, exists regardless of the human mind which is obviously incapable of total comprehension of all that exists.

Impacts on the Earth of hard objects and radio waves are as much of the history of evolution of life as events on Earth. Bioevolution according to this planet is a solar systemic, interstellar and galactic interactive process. Advances of animal form, consciousness and intelligence may even be attributable primarily to extraterrestrial events resulting in mass extinctions, and for higher mammals, especially primates and humans, impacts may have had a strong influence on the history of culture and civilization. Human civilization unknowingly reflects natural impacts generating damage through industrial and military action.

nuclear_fractures_asteroids_warming.jpg
(Fig. 42) nuclear_fractures_asteroids_warming.jpg

Global catastrophic risk from lower magnitude volcanic eruptions
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-021-25021-8


An Hypothetical Chart of Coincidence of Cosmic and Earth Events

diag. 18
          Evolution Transitions/
Supernova Events/Impacts/Volcanics/Glaciation/Warming
______________________________________________
Evolution timeline  X    . x   X  x  .    . X
Supernova timeline  X .  x X  .x  .  x    x .
Impact timeline   .  x    . X   x.  X   X .  .  
Volcanic timeline  X .   Xx    x  .. X  x.  X 
Glacial timeline     X .   X    x   X   x  x.
Warming timeline    X     X   . x  X  .   X x.
______________________________________________
            4.5 bya   3.5 bya   500 mya  5 mya

➤ Tree rings may hold clues to impacts of distant supernovas on Earth
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/11/201111144400.htm

Back to Top


A Curved Universe and Closed Boundary Condition

Our Universe is Curved, Suggests New Study
“Precise measurements of CMB anisotropies — the direction in which radiation in space is moving — can determine with a high degree of accuracy the shape of the Universe. The new data from ESA’s Planck satellite strongly suggests a Universe with positive curvature. If true, this challenges the current, flat model of the Universe. In a flat Universe, two parallel lines will travel forever without meeting. In a curved Universe, however, the two lines will eventually meet.”
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/universe-curved-07789.html

Researchers claim data from Planck space observatory suggests universe is a sphere
“They claim that there is evidence that the universe is closed—that it is shaped like a sphere. If you shine two lights into the dark of space, they suggest, at some point, the light would come back around to you from behind.”
https://phys.org/news/2019-11-planck-space-observatory-universe-sphere.html

diag. 19

4D model including Time with 5D Topological Space
Big Bang                                            Heat Death
From center of universe ➡ ➡ ➡ ➡ 🌍 ➡ ➡ ➡ ➡ To center of universe
Inflation/Expansion             Earth      Exocosm (5D) to Big Bang


➤ Researchers detect cold gas pipelines feeding early, massive galaxies
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-cold-gas-pipelines-early-massive.html


If there's nothing wrong with the picture, then that's what's wrong with the picture.


🎓 Incompleteness of the Human Genome and,
The Technological Singularity

total_horizon_human_vision.png
(Fig. 43) total_horizon_human_vision.png

In the science of Ecology biological nature may be studied strictly objectively, and that such a point of view reduces humans to just another animal is not a negative point of view, unless one already has a disposition of negativity toward nature, life, animals and human beings. Actual nature and human culture may be perceived as two entirely different things. Remove the wardrobes of cultures from human societies and individuals, and they are all the same primate of the same hominid species exhibiting the same biology and behavior.

Deep Ecology
pDeep_ecology

➤ 13-Million-Year-Old Gibbon Ancestor Discovered in India
http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/
kapi-ramnagarensis-08831.html


Theoretical Integrated Human Genome

gibbon  ◀—integrate sexual dimorphism

chimpanzee  ◀—integrate nuclear human family

gorilla ◀—integrate social ecological adaptation

homo-sapiens  ◀—integrate adaptive cognitive-behavioral 
                learning responses

The Technological Singularity is a probability, that humans do not follow the extinction pathway of previous hominids is a probability, and that humans do not destroy the planet is a probability. The pursuit of science is also a probability dependent on cognitive-behavioral factors. Animals cannot be evolved retro-actively, injured animals cannot be healed retro-actively, but nature has all the time in the universe to operate the mechanics of physics and biology.

❝Evolution is a process of creating patterns of increasing order....I believe that it's the evolution of patterns that constitutes the ultimate story of our world. Evolution works through indirection: each stage or epoch uses the information-processing methods of the previous epoch to create the next.❞
❝We only have to capture 1/10,000th of the solar energy landing on earth to completely satisfy all our energy needs.❞
❝So what used to fit in a building now fits in your pocket, what fits in your pocket now will fit inside a blood cell in 25 years.❞
—Ray Kurzweil (1948—) Inventor and Futurist

Technological singularity: Some argue that we are already in the midst of a major evolutionary transition that merges technology, biology, and society. Digital technology has infiltrated the fabric of human society to a degree of indisputable and often life-sustaining dependence.
pTechnological_singularity


From da Vinci to Darwin to Einstein

If the universe is like a giant computer machine that accepts rational arguments from sentient beings according to quantum mechanics, then humans might be able to 'da Vinci' their way to some future higher tech. and social dignity than primate hierarchies and modes of behavior, but Earth's ecology indicates continued direction of mass-extinction down the scales of species to the molecular and atomic level. The Technological Singularity may prove to be a Bioevolutionary event, a machine event of species on the microbiological level, or potentially activated by extraterrestrial radiation, a solar flare or gamma radio burst.

lascaux_giza_mona_picasso_2001_space_iss.jpg
(Fig. 44) lascaux_giza_mona_picasso_2001_space_iss.jpg

Today there are gravitational wave detectors. Tomorrow there may be gravitational wave deflectors and generators, but such a level of technology would mean radical advance of civilization as from the stone-age to today. It is more likely that civilization can advance than it is that it will given exponential acceleration of human conflict. The sciences of the human brain and behavior, biology and sociology are less advanced than the sciences equipping humans with technological powers which reduce humanity to authoritarianism and weapons development.


❝Man with all his noble qualities, with sympathy which feels for the most debased, with benevolence which extends not only to other men but to the humblest living creature, with his god-like intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system — with all these exalted powers — Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin.❞
(Descent of Man)
—Charles Darwin 🍎🍎 (1809—1882) Naturalist, Geologist and Biologist.

Darwin's Arch: was a natural rock arch feature to the southeast of Darwin Island in the Pacific Ocean. The arch sat on an irregularly shaped, rocky, submerged plateau, nicknamed "the theatre". The arch collapsed due to natural erosion on May 17, 2021, leaving two freestanding pillars.
pDarwin%27s_Arch

Ten Myths about Charles Darwin
Abstract
“Charles Darwin is one of the most revered (and at times reviled) figures in Western history. A great many facts about him and his ideas are the stuff of textbook myths, others are inaccuracies spread by antievolutionists, and still others are conventional historical mistakes long corrected but still repeated.”
https://academic.oup.com/bioscience/article/59/9/800/248702


➤ New Simulation Shows Exactly What Dark Matter Would Look Like If We Could See It
https://www.universetoday.com/147654/
new-simulation-shows-exactly-what-dark-matter-would-look-like-if-we-could-see-it/

➤ Gravitational Waves May Help Find Universe’s Missing Components
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/gravitational-waves-universes-missing-components-09206.html

Back to Top


🎓 Scale Invariance — Quantum Equivalence

scale_invariance_equivalence.jpg
(Fig. 45) scale_invariance_equivalence.jpg
  1. Black Hole
  2. Interstellar Rogue Planet - Planet Nine
  3. Dead Planet - Planet Earth
  4. Carbon Atom - Basis of life
  5. Dark Energy Universe
diag. 20

Cosmic  Inflation
       ▲
       │
       │Mass  \  Spacetime   
       │       \/
       │       /\Cosmological    
       │      /  \   constant    
       │     /    \
       │    /Matter 
       │
       │Gravity   Energy
  Heat ⚫———————————————▶
        Expansion

There's a simulated view of the dark-matter universe and an update on the Earth's condition of potential ecological collapse. The dark-matter looks like biological fibre or a nerve network and the excess acidification of Earth's oceans would knock down the biosphere to what Hawking predicted, Earth would become as hostile to life as Venus.

Vacuum Energy
“Quantum field theory states that all fundamental fields, such as the electromagnetic field, must be quantized at each and every point in space. A field in physics may be envisioned as if space were filled with interconnected vibrating balls and springs, and the strength of the field is like the displacement of a ball from its rest position. The theory requires vibrations in, or more accurately changes in the strength of, such a field to propagate as per the appropriate wave equation for the particular field in question. The second quantization of quantum field theory requires that each such ball–spring combination be quantized, that is, that the strength of the field be quantized at each point in space.” —wikipedia
pVacuum_energy

Acidification impedes shell development of plankton off the US West Coast
https://phys.org/news/2021-01-acidification-impedes-shell-plankton-west.html

universal_tidal_disruption.jpg
(Fig. 46) universal_ tidal_disruption.jpg

The universe exists before the fact of the complex proteins composing DNA folded into a mathematical space unknown to humans, and life may have existed before, in a previous universe, before the current one unfolded into nucleosynthesis of atomic elements. The mathematical strings of physical theory are similar to the strings of folded macromolecules in material theory.

One may question the possibility that everything humans are seeing, even with science-engineered tools is indicating that as living beings they are limited to see everything according to their biological structure. Quantum mechanics provides the essential information about how reality is one step removed from its actuality, but the stretch of the imagination is that dark-matter is a projection of the fibrous nerve net of the human brain.


➤ Human Brain’s Neuronal Network Has Similarities to Cosmic Web, Study Claims
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/
human-brain-cosmic-web-similarities-09066.html

➤ Giant virus genomes discovered lurking in DNA of common algae https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/11/
giant-virus-genomes-discovered-lurking-dna-common-algae


binary_fission_algae.jpg
(Fig. 47) binary_fission_algae.jpg

The other possibility is that the universe may be a molecular-textured-like solid object, which would explain why the dark-matter appears as a fibrous material and as haloes surrounding galaxies. Gravitational waves, electromagnetic waves, and subatomic particles permeate the universe. The spacial dimension is equivalent on the macroscale to the microscale, that as in between subatomic particles there is the same massive distance as between objects up the scale of matter, but the distances cancel each other out making the universe more solid-condensed-massive than space-temporal — or a black hole full of black holes. Given a 5th physical dimension, the space and dynamics of matter inside an hyperspherical or hypertorus tesseract-like form would exhibit a geometry that may explain the phenomenon of dark matter/energy and black holes.

It may either be that Earth reached its limit of evolving animals ( Fermi Paradox), or Loop Quantum Gravity is just around the corner of a Gravitational Singularity's White Hole.

While reverse-entropy remains highly improbable, retro-causality, given conservation of quantum information ( no-hiding theorem) is very likely natural to sustaining coherence in the constant of linear forward time. The sets of possibilities are limited by the no-go theorem, reducing to greater probabilities in the framework of actual nature. In one-half rotation of the solar system in the galaxy the Earth travelled from the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction to the verge of a Boreoeutherial extinction event today — somewhat like galactic clockwork.

Back to Top


Extinction Events

  1. Ordovician-Silurian extinction - 444 million years ago.
  2. Late Devonian extinction - 383-359 million years ago.
  3. Permian-Triassic extinction - 252 million years ago.
  4. Triassic-Jurassic extinction - 201 million years ago.
  5. Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction - 66 million years ago.
  6. Boreoeutherial (Quaternary Holocene Meghalayan)

⚫ Carnian Pluvial Event — Ascent of Dinosaurs and Conifer Forests
pCarnian_Pluvial_Event

➤ Climate changes led to the extinction of early human species, says study
https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/variety/
climate-changes-led-to-the-extinction-of-early-human-species-says-study/article32879314.ece

➤ End-Permian Extinction Triggered Switch to Warm-Bloodedness
http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/end-permian-extinction-switch-warm-bloodedness-08958.html

Binary Fission

Evolution of reproduction begins with binary fission which is both cyclical and linear in information momentum. The two systems either coordinate or discoordinate, adapt or maladapt. Natural selection is complimented by an organism's intelligent response to its environmental condition, and also determined by the organism's predisposition, and which may include a mutation which previously had no adaptive function.

“As Archaea and Bacteria cells reproduce by Binary Fission, it is possible that viruses could gain a similar form of self-reproduction even without a cell membrane, and such creatures could potentially thrive in the most extreme conditions of toxicity and radiation as long as organic chemicals exist. Bacteria and Viruses can operate symbiotically. The zygote-effective recombination. ie. these indicate evolution of the virus to a sex reproducing form, even without a nucleus, mitochondria or cell wall.”

❝Never will the doctrine of spontaneous generation recover from the mortal blow struck by this simple experiment. — The universe is asymmetric and I am persuaded that life, as it is known to us, is a direct result of the asymmetry of the universe or of its indirect consequences.❞
—Louis Pasteur 🍎 (1822—1895) Biologist, Microbiologist and Chemist


For the Love of Gravity

Wave Density Point of Gravitation — Wave Precedes Gravity — Exocosmic Thermal Input

➤ One of quantum physics’ greatest paradoxes may have lost its leading explanation
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/09/
one-quantum-physics-greatest-paradoxes-may-have-lost-its-leading-explanation

➤ Defects may help scientists understand the exotic physics of topology
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/01/210122102017.htm

Gravitational Wave
pGravitational_wave

Quantum Gravity
pQuantum_gravity

Gravitoelectromagnetism
pGravitoelectromagnetism

Speed of Gravity
pSpeed_of_gravity

Euclidean Quantum Gravity
Wick rotation: , Named after Gian-Carlo Wick, is a method of finding a solution to dynamics problems in n dimensions, by transposing their descriptions in n + 1  dimensions, by trading one dimension of space for one dimension of time. More precisely, it substitutes a mathematical problem in Minkowski space into a related problem in Euclidean space by means of a transformation that substitutes an imaginary-number variable for a real-number variable. It is called a rotation because when complex numbers are represented as a plane, the multiplication of a complex number by i is equivalent to rotating the vector representing that number by an angle of π / 2 radians about the origin.
pEuclidean_quantum_gravity


⚫ Wave function collapse
pWave_function_collapse

diag. 21
Thermodynamic Equilibrium - Entropy Reset
             Fluctuation
             Density-Frequency
             Tidal Disruption-Perturbation
Heat in ——▶  Gravity ——▶ Heat out
︵‿‿︵‿︵︵‿︵___ ⚫  __︵‿︵‿︵︵‿︵‿︵
Mass in ——▶  Gravity ——▶ Mass out
Gravity in ——▶ ⚫ Heat and Mass out
             Particle-Wave ——▶ Quantum Gravity out

Wave collapse induced by gravity   gravity-induced wave collapse

        event horizon    escape velocity    wave-induced gravitation 
︵‿‿︵‿︵‿︵︵‿︵‿︵_______________ ⚫  _____________‿︵‿︵︵‿︵‿︵‿‿︵︵‿
radiation                  singularity                 accretion 
decay                      evaporation                  stability


Go to Dynamic Systems

Hamiltonian Mechanics: Time Evolution of the Wavefunction

“Hamiltonian mechanics is a mathematically sophisticated formulation of classical mechanics. Historically, it contributed to the formulation of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. While Hamiltonian mechanics can be used to describe simple systems such as a bouncing ball, a pendulum or an oscillating spring in which energy changes from kinetic to potential and back again over time, its strength is shown in more complex dynamic systems, such as planetary orbits in celestial mechanics. The more degrees of freedom the system has, the more complicated its time evolution is and, in most cases, it becomes chaotic.” —wikipedia

Quantum Harmonic Oscillator: Vibrations of Atoms and Molecules

“First, the energies are quantized, meaning that only discrete energy values (integer-plus-half multiples of ħω) are possible; this is a general feature of quantum-mechanical systems when a particle is confined. Second, these discrete energy levels are equally spaced, unlike in the Bohr model of the atom, or the particle in a box. Third, the lowest achievable energy (the energy of the n = 0 state, called the ground state) is not equal to the minimum of the potential well, but ħω/2 above it; this is called zero-point energy. Because of the zero-point energy, the position and momentum of the oscillator in the ground state are not fixed (as they would be in a classical oscillator), but have a small range of variance, in accordance with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.” —wikipedia

Introduction to Eigenstates
“In the everyday world, it is natural and intuitive to think of every object being in its own eigenstate. This is another way of saying that every object appears to have a definite position, a definite momentum, a definite measured value, and a definite time of occurrence. However, the uncertainty principle says that it is impossible to measure the exact value for the momentum of a particle like an electron, given that its position has been determined at a given instant. Likewise, it is impossible to determine the exact location of that particle once its momentum has been measured at a particular instant. ” —wikipedia
pIntroduction_to_eigenstates
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
pIntroduction_to_eigenstates


❝The science of optics, like every other physical science, has two different directions of progress, which have been called the ascending and the descending scale, the inductive and the deductive method, the way of analysis and of synthesis. In every physical science, we must ascend from facts to laws, by the way of induction and analysis; and we must descend from laws to consequences, by the deductive and synthetic way. We must gather and group appearances, until the scientific imagination discerns their hidden law, and unity arises from variety; and then from unity must reduce variety, and force the discovered law to utter its revelations of the future.❞
—William Rowan Hamilton 🍎 (1805—1865) Mathematician

❝The ordinary operations of algebra suffice to resolve problems in the theory of curves.❞
❝As long as algebra and geometry have been separated, their progress have been slow and their uses limited; but when these two sciences have been united, they have lent each mutual forces, and have marched together towards perfection.❞
—Joseph-Louis Lagrange 🍎 (1736—1813) Mathematician and Astronomer

❝The effects of heat are subject to constant laws which cannot be discovered without the aid of mathematical analysis. The object of the theory is to demonstrate these laws; it reduces all physical researches on the propagation of heat, to problems of the integral calculus, whose elements are given by experiment. No subject has more extensive relations with the progress of industry and the natural sciences; for the action of heat is always present, it influences the processes of the arts, and occurs in all the phenomena of the universe.❞
❝The profound study of nature is the most fertile source of mathematical discovery.❞
—Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier 🍎 (1768—1830) Mathematician and Physicist

Back to Top


🎓 The Quantum Revelation

kepler_model_pentaquark_cell_fusion.jpg
(Fig. 48) kepler_model_pentaquark_cell_fusion.jpg

The quantum revelation hasn't happened yet, but quantum reality is the only working model forward. The nuclear revelation of the early 20th century is still in progress as evident in the war-tool making behavior of the world. The technological singularity at best is a quantum revelation as powerful as the nuclear revelation, but at worst yet another level of technology threatening the human and natural world.

What exactly happened to the Neanderthals that went extinct is not known for sure, but they exited Africa before humans and may have mostly got eaten by tigers and other carnivores and attacked by pathogens and insects. The core evolutionary advantage of the human species may be its ability to be shocked and terrified to the point that the carnivorous animals were too scared to attempt large scale predation, but in constructing civilization what is an advantage in nature becomes a disadvantage as humans become fear-aggressive toward each other. Humans have existed in a condition of warfare for a long time consolidating trauma and aggressive behaviors.

“The Neanderthals became extinct around 40,000 years ago. This date, which is based on research published in Nature in 2014, is much earlier than previous estimates, and it was established through improved radiocarbon dating methods analyzing 40 sites from Spain to russia. Evidence for continued Neanderthal presence in the Iberian Peninsula at 37,000 years ago was published in 2017. Hypotheses on the fate of the Neanderthals include violence from encroaching anatomically modern humans, parasites and pathogens, competitive replacement, competitive exclusion, extinction by interbreeding with early modern human populations, natural catastrophes, and failure or inability to adapt to climate change. It is unlikely that any one of these hypotheses is sufficient on its own; rather, multiple factors probably contributed to the demise of an already low population.” —wikipedia

Valley of the Shadow of Extinction

Neandertal (valley)
pNeandertal_(valley)

➤ Disease transmission and introgression can explain the long-lasting contact zone of modern humans and Neanderthals
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-12862-7

Researchers Decipher Blood Groups of Neanderthals and Denisovans
Sex with modern humans may have helped drive Neanderthals to extinction because it could have have led to a blood disorder (Hemolytic disease of the newborn) in their babies, scientists have discovered.
http://www.sci-news.com/genetics/neanderthal-denisovan-blood-groups-09912.html

➤ How Neanderthals lost their Y chromosome
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/09/how-neanderthals-lost-their-y-chromosome

➤ How a Single Gene Alteration May Have Separated Modern Humans from Predecessors
https://health.ucsd.edu/news/releases/Pages/
2021-02-11-how-a-single-gene-alteration-may-have-separated-modern-humans-from-predecessors.aspx

➤ Sex selection by female immunity against paternal antigens can fix loss of function alleles
https://www.pnas.org/content/108/43/17743


❝The morphological characteristics of plant and animal species form the chief subject of the descriptive natural sciences and are the criteria for their classification. But not until recently has it been recognized that in living organisms, as in the realm of crystals, chemical differences parallel the variation in structure.❞
❝There is no sharp boundary line separating the reactions of the immune bodies from chemical processes between crystalloids, just as in nature there exists every stage between crystalloid and colloid. The nearer the colloid particle approximates to the normal electrolyte, the nearer its compounds must obviously come to conforming to the law of simple stoichiometric proportions, and the compounds themselves to simple chemical compounds. At this point, it should be recalled that Arrhenius has shown that the quantitative relationship between toxin and antitoxin is very similar to that between acid and base.❞
—Karl Landsteiner 🍎 (1868—1943) Biologist, Physician, and Immunologist

Back to Top


Gorillas in the Mix (of higher evolutionary potential)

If humans ever get a message in a bottle from a Neanderthal it might contain the resolution of superpositioned quantum states. One may speculate that the modern human is in the same peril as all hominids before, and that another lineage may have, or will, lead to a more stable species that can resolve the scientific and social issues of today to a higher civilization. It may also be that a few humans do exist that would be comfortable and successful in a higher civilization. The Gorilla would seem to have been a better candidate for advanced evolution, and if humans go extinct along with their failed hominid cousins, the Gorilla may yet survive to evolve a higher level of civilization.

quadratic superpositioning  
             |
    axion    |   graviton
_____________|_________________Shift_
                   |           Offset 
 Photon 1          |   Photon 2
                   |
        Detection by Dispersion

axion_graviton_fields.png
(Fig. 49) axion_
graviton_fields.png

“A field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.”

Astrophysicists May Have Found Evidence of Long-Sought Axions
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/magnificent-seven-axions-09265.html

Equivalence principle

A little reflection will show that the law of the equality of the inertial and gravitational mass is equivalent to the assertion that the acceleration imparted to a body by a gravitational field is independent of the nature of the body. For Newton's equation of motion in a gravitational field, written out in full, it is:
(Inertial mass) ⋅ (Acceleration) = (Intensity of the gravitational field) ⋅ (Gravitational mass).
It is only when there is numerical equality between the inertial and gravitational mass that the acceleration is independent of the nature of the body. —wikipedia


The quantum model of reality may eventually be worked to a point that a peace message could be sent back in time. The realm of science-fiction helps somewhat by maintaining plausible reasoning, and in science-realism experimentation, progress is endless as the imagination. Quantum entanglement operates in a dimension where time is not restricted to any linear direction, and so has retro-causality and superdeterministic potential. Experiments attempt to make one photon forget its state so as to discover the medium of entanglement superpositioning another photon — Aristotelian two-valued logic. From the entangled state looking back would be like radar, and “Quantum radar is a speculative remote-sensing technology based on quantum-mechanical effects, such as the uncertainty principle or quantum entanglement. One approach is based on the use of input quantum correlations (in particular, quantum entanglement) combined with a suitable interferometric quantum detection at the receiver (strongly related to the protocol of quantum illumination).”

blackhole_higgs_field_tunneling.png
(Fig. 50) blackhole_higgs_field_tunneling.png

It may be possible to explore the galaxy over light speed and even come back home to a healthy planet in reasonably good time, or maybe not. The ignorance level up the social status scale may exceed any possibility of retracting the human species from conflict, that is, in ecological terms, a climax community has been exceeded to where an ecological succession occurs — an extinction of species.

Back to Top


Quantum Tunneling

“Quantum tunneling plays an essential role in physical phenomena, such as nuclear fusion. It has applications in the tunnel diode, quantum computing, and in the scanning tunneling microscope. … Classical mechanics predicts that particles that do not have enough energy to classically surmount a barrier cannot reach the other side. Thus, a ball without sufficient energy to surmount the hill would roll back down. A ball that lacks the energy to penetrate a wall bounces back. Alternatively, the ball might become part of the wall (absorption). In quantum mechanics, these particles can, with a small probability, tunnel to the other side, thus crossing the barrier. The ball, in a sense, borrows energy from its surroundings to cross the wall. It then repays the energy by making the reflected electrons more energetic than they otherwise would have been.” —wikipedia

Quantum Tunnelling
pQuantum_tunnelling

Proton Decay
pProton_decay

“Tunneling is the cause of some important macroscopic physical phenomena. Quantum tunnelling has important implications on functioning of nanotechnology. … Quantum tunneling is among the central non-trivial quantum effects in quantum biology. Here it is important both as electron tunneling and proton tunneling. Electron tunneling is a key factor in many biochemical redox reactions (photosynthesis, cellular respiration) as well as enzymatic catalysis. Proton tunneling is a key factor in spontaneous DNA mutation. … Some physicists have claimed that it is possible for spin-zero particles to travel faster than the speed of light when tunneling. This apparently violates the principle of causality, since a frame of reference then exists in which the particle arrives before it has left.” —wikipedia


❝ • The world is made of fields—substances spread through all of space that we notice through their vibrations, which appear to us as particles. The electric field and the gravitational field might seem familiar, but according to quantum field theory even particles like electrons and quarks are really vibrations in certain kinds of fields.
• The Higgs boson is a vibration in the Higgs field, just as a photon of light is a vibration in the electromagnetic field.
• The four famous forces of nature arise from symmetries—changes we can make to a situation without changing anything important about what happens. (Yes, it makes no immediate sense that “a change that doesn’t make a difference” leads directly to “a force of nature” . . . but that was one of the startling insights of twentieth-century physics.)
• Symmetries are sometimes hidden and therefore invisible to us. Physicists often say that hidden symmetries are “broken,” but they’re still there in the underlying laws of physics—they’re simply disguised in the immediately observable world.
• The weak nuclear force, in particular, is based on a certain kind of symmetry. If that symmetry were unbroken, it would be impossible for elementary particles to have mass. They would all zip around at the speed of light.
• But most elementary particles do have mass, and they don’t zip around at the speed of light. Therefore, the symmetry of the weak interactions must be broken.
• When space is completely empty, most fields are turned off, set to zero. If a field is not zero in empty space, it can break a symmetry. In the case of the weak interactions, that’s the job of the Higgs field. Without it, the universe would be an utterly different place.❞
—Sean M. Carroll 🍎 (1966—) Theoretical Physicist
The Particle at the End of the Universe 2013

The quantum field theory on which the everyday world supervenes
“In a model known as the Core Theory. All the things we humans experience in our day-to-day lives—the warmth of sunlight, the gravitational pull of the Earth, the kinetic energy required to move our bodies through space—are beholden to and can be explained by Core Theory.”
https://phys.org/news/2022-01-quantum-field-theory-everyday-world.html

Field (physics)
pField_(physics)

Quantum Twist Could Kill off the Multiverse
“Carroll set out to write a paper showing that Boltzmann brains are a real threat, but in the process he found a way to vanquish them. His starting point was the idea that quantum fluctuations are dependent on interactions with an external system or particle, known as an “observer” – a familiar concept in quantum mechanics. When he applied this thinking to our view of inflation, it changed everything. The inflaton must have preceded all the other particles in the very early universe. That means it was the only type of particle that existed, so there would have been nothing “external” for inflatons to interact with, says Carroll. In this case, the inflaton would not have undergone quantum fluctuations.”
https://www.newscientist.com/article/
mg22229692-600-quantum-twist-could-kill-off-the-multiverse/

Boltzmann Brain
pBoltzmann_brain


❝All matter originates and exists only by virtue of a force which brings the particle of an atom to vibration and holds this most minute solar system of the atom together. We must assume behind this force the existence of a conscious and intelligent mind. This mind is the matrix of all matter.❞
—Max Planck 🍎🍎 (1858—1947) Theoretical Physicist.

Back to Top


TheHyper-Quantum Boundary
🔰 §ection II: (Re-)Integration of Man and Nature

❝In every branch of knowledge the progress is proportional to the amount of facts on which to build, and therefore to the facility of obtaining data. — All the mathematical sciences are founded on relations between physical laws and laws of numbers. — The chief philosophical value of physics is that it gives the mind something distinct to lay hold of, which, if you don't, Nature at once tells you you are wrong. — All energy is the same as mechanical energy, whether it exists in the form of motion or in that of elasticity, or in any other form. The energy in electromagnetic phenomena is mechanical energy.❞
—James Clerk Maxwell 🍎🍎 (1831—1879) Mathematical Physicist.

diag. 22
_____________________________    ______________________________
|🔵     🌑 ⤷     | 🌑 ⤶   🌑 ⤶ |  |        🔵   |      🌑 ⤶      |
|   🌑 ⤶        |    🔵  ⤴    |   |  🔵         |          🌑 ⤶  |
|        ➡  🌑➡ ➡ hot  ⤵     |   |   ⤵ 🔵 cold | 🌑 ⤷  hot      |
| 🔵   ⤴ cold   |\      🌑 🔵  |   |   🔵        |        🌑 ⤴    |
|     🌑   ⤵ 🔵  |   🌑 ⤶     |   |      🔵  ⤴  |  ⤵ 🔵          |
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

⚫ “Maxwell's Demon is a thought experiment that would hypothetically violate the second law of thermodynamics. It was proposed by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1867.” —wikipedia
pMaxwell%27s_demon

“In the thought experiment, a demon controls a small massless door between two chambers of gas. As individual gas molecules (or atoms) approach the door, the demon quickly opens and closes the door to allow only fast-moving molecules to pass through in one direction, and only slow-moving molecules to pass through in the other. Because the kinetic temperature of a gas depends on the velocities of its constituent molecules, the demon's actions cause one chamber to warm up and the other to cool down. This would decrease the total entropy of the two gases, without applying any work, thereby violating the second law of thermodynamics.” —wikipedia


Maxwell's Demon: Researchers Create New 'Best-in-Class' Information Engine
https://interestingengineering.com/maxwells-demon-researchers-create-new-best-in-class-information-engine

Researchers uncover an anomaly in the electromagnetic duality of Maxwell Theory
https://phys.org/news/2019-10-uncover-anomaly-electromagnetic-duality-maxwell.html

Back to Top


🎓 Quantum Teleportation and the Multiverse

Quantum teleportation refers to transmitting information with none or little time dilation. A qubit is not matter or object so is not restricted by classical physics. The Multiverse theory is about a sequence of bubbles bubbling across 11 or 12 dimensions in some flat plane in a mystery space, and may be interesting to some mathematical physicists, but doesn't sound very realistic according to human experience of actual nature.

The Case for Parallel Universes
Why the multiverse, crazy as it sounds, is a solid scientific idea
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/multiverse-the-case-for-parallel-universe/


If the universe is consistent with the gravitational-planetary or barycentric model of stars and galaxies, then it is a big ball in a 5D space, maybe in a gravitational relationship with some other universes, or maybe in 5D is where gravity is of none effect on objects. The distances between planets is large, the distances between stars is larger, and the distances between galaxies even larger. The distances between universes may be so large that gravitation, electromagnetism, and particles cease to exist before a perfect vacuum at absolute zero temperature, that is, the kind of reality qubits may need to efffectively operate as practical analogues of logical and physical gates. Qubits are more virtual but logically existant. Qubits represent the 'one step removed' from reality of quantum mechanics.

“Quantum logic gates are represented by unitary matrices. The number of qubits in the input and output of the gate must be equal; a gate which acts on n qubits is represented by a 2n × 2n unitary matrix. The quantum states that the gates act upon are vectors in 2n complex dimensions. The base vectors are the possible outcomes if measured, and a quantum state is a linear combination of these outcomes. The most common quantum gates operate on spaces of one or two qubits, just like the common classical logic gates operate on one or two bits.” —wikipedia

Quantum Supremacy
hypothetical velocity acceleration from local to distant reality
1. Circumference of Earth. –> (<1 min.) 2. Circumference of Solar System. (>2 min.) 3. Circumference of Galaxy (<4 min.) –>

The realization of a single-quantum-dot heat valve
https://phys.org/news/2021-01-single-quantum-dot-valve.html

Applying quantum computing to a particle process
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-quantum-particle.html

Lack of symmetry in qubits can't fix errors in quantum computing, might explain matter/antimatter
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-lack-symmetry-qubits-errors-quantum.html


Bloch Sphere

“In quantum mechanics and computing, the Bloch sphere is a geometrical representation of the pure state space of a two-level quantum mechanical system (qubit), named after the physicist Felix Bloch. Quantum mechanics is mathematically formulated in Hilbert space or projective Hilbert space. The pure states of a quantum system correspond to the one-dimensional subspaces of the corresponding Hilbert space (or the points of the projective Hilbert space). The Bloch sphere is a unit 2-sphere, with antipodal points corresponding to a pair of mutually orthogonal state vectors. The north and south poles of the Bloch sphere are typically chosen to correspond to the standard basis vectors, respectively, which in turn might correspond e.g. to the spin-up and spin-down states of an electron. This choice is arbitrary, however. The points on the surface of the sphere correspond to the pure states of the system, whereas the interior points correspond to the mixed states. For historical reasons, in optics the Bloch sphere is also known as the Poincaré sphere and specifically represents different types of polarizations.” —wikipedia

Quantum Superposition

“Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics. It states that, much like waves in classical physics, any two (or more) quantum states can be added together ("superposed") and the result will be another valid quantum state; and conversely, that every quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more other distinct states. Mathematically, it refers to a property of solutions to the Schrödinger equation; since the Schrödinger equation is linear, any linear combination of solutions will also be a solution. An example of a physically observable manifestation of the wave nature of quantum systems is the interference peaks from an electron beam in a double-slit experiment. The pattern is very similar to the one obtained by diffraction of classical waves.” —wikipedia

Homology Sphere

“A simple construction of this space begins with a dodecahedron. Each face of the dodecahedron is identified with its opposite face, using the minimal clockwise twist to line up the faces. Gluing each pair of opposite faces together using this identification yields a closed 3-manifold. (See Seifert–Weber space for a similar construction, using more "twist", that results in a hyperbolic 3-manifold.) In 2003, lack of structure on the largest scales (above 60 degrees) in the cosmic microwave background as observed for one year by the WMAP spacecraft led to the suggestion, by Jean-Pierre Luminet of the Observatoire de Paris and colleagues, that the shape of the universe is a Poincaré sphere. In 2008, astronomers found the best orientation on the sky for the model and confirmed some of the predictions of the model, using three years of observations by the WMAP spacecraft. As of 2016, the publication of data analysis from the Planck spacecraft suggests that there is no observable non-trivial topology to the universe.” —wikipedia

diag. 23

This Universe          Another Universe
    .-"""-.    Perfect         │
   /       \   Vacuum          ▼
   |       |   Absolute        .
   \   *   /    0° K.
    '-...-'
Large distance   ——▶   Extreme distance  

       * 
       ▲
       │

A man-made spacecraft travelling at hyperluminous speed across the galaxy on an expedition to find another Earth-like planet. The spaceship may be entangled and teleported as both a virtual and material object, but unlikely across any more than 5 dimensions or to any other universe not similar to this one.

The Great Filter

History of Hominids

  • Transitional Hominids 5 mya
    Status: Extinct
  • Australopithicus 3 mya
    Status: Extinct
  • Homo Habilis 2.5 mya
    Status: Extinct
  • Homo Erectus 2 mya
    Status: Extinct
  • Neanderthal 1 mya
    Status: Extinct
  • Homo sapiens 300 kya
    Status: Holocene Extinction

A photon travels at the speed of light, and in a black hole faster and stretched into a line disappearing into the center of mass and gravity. So in quantum superposition of photons one disappears, the other appears. Rather than two spaceships superspositioned, one spaceship is superpositioned in two locations, one inside the universe travelling across the galaxy, and the other outside travelling across the galaxy. The spaceship is orbiting the universe and so travelling at superluminous speed with none or little time dilation. When the spaceship returns to Earth the humans on board do not discover a time-warp like in science-fiction stories because a civilization of humans intelligent enough to engineer such a craft would not de-evolve into apes or build a fear-aggression driven world of war-tool making.


❝Time travel used to be thought of as just science fiction, but Einstein’s general theory of relativity allows for the possibility that we could warp space-time so much that you could go off in a rocket and return before you set out. If time travel is possible then where are the tourists from the future?❞
—Stephen Hawking 🍎(1942—2018) Theoretical Physicist and Cosmologist.


❝Where is everybody? Humans could theoretically colonize the galaxy in a million years or so,
and if they could, astronauts from older civilizations could do the same.
So why haven't they come to Earth?❞
—Enrico Fermi 🍎 (1901—1954) Theoretical and Experimental Physicist.

⚫ Fermi paradox
pFermi_paradox


Time Reversal Symmetry

T-symmetry or time reversal symmetry is the theoretical symmetry of physical laws under the transformation of time reversal.”

T:t\↦ -t

⚫ Relativity of simultaneity
pRelativity_of_simultaneity
⚫ Causality (physics)
pCausality_(physics)
⚫ Principle of locality
pPrinciple_of_locality


“Time is what keeps everything from happening at once”

Ray Cummings The Girl in the Golden Atom

❝Time is what keeps everything from happening at once.❞
❝No phenomenon is a real phenomenon until it is an observed phenomenon.❞
❝In order to more fully understand this reality, we must take into account other dimensions of a broader reality.❞
❝The existence of spacetime singularities represents an end to the principle of sufficient causation and to so the predictability gained by science. How could physics lead to a violation of itself —to no physics?❞
❝Space-time tells matter how to move. Matter tells space-time how to curve.❞
—John Archibald Wheeler 🍎 (1911—2008) Theoretical Physicist


⚫ Problem of Time
“The problem of time is a conceptual conflict between general relativity and quantum mechanics in that quantum mechanics regards the flow of time as universal and absolute, whereas general relativity regards the flow of time as malleable and relative. This problem raises the question of what time really is in a physical sense and whether it is truly a real, distinct phenomenon. It also involves the related question of why time seems to flow in a single direction, despite the fact that no known physical laws at the microscopic level seem to require a single direction. For macroscopic systems the directionality of time is directly linked to first principles such as the second law of thermodynamics.” —wikipedia
pProblem_of_time


Geometrodynamics

⚫ “In theoretical physics, geometrodynamics is an attempt to describe spacetime and associated phenomena completely in terms of geometry. Technically, its goal is to unify the fundamental forces and reformulate general relativity as a configuration space of three-metrics, modulo three-dimensional diffeomorphisms. It was enthusiastically promoted by John Wheeler in the 1960s, and work on it continues in the 21st century.”
pGeometrodynamics

Physicists get closer to examining the symmetries underlying our universe
https://phys.org/news/2021-01-physicists-closer-symmetries-underlying-universe.html

Back to Top


 ❏ Extraterrestrial Civilization

Life in these star-systems could have spotted Earth
https://phys.org/news/2021-06-life-star-systems-earth.html

Here's what Earth might look like to aliens
Astronomers reverse engineer Earth images to understand data from exoplanets
https://www.science.org/news/2019/08/here-s-what-earth-might-look-aliens

Large-Scale SETI Survey of Vela Region Finds No Signs of Extraterrestrial Intelligence
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/vela-seti-survey-08827.html

👽 Alien Green: #96C832 👽 Alien Gray: #9C9CA4

?ETI
pSETI_Institute

︵‿‿︵‿︵‿︵︵‿︵‿︵‿︵‿︵︵‿︵‿︵‿‿︵︵‿︵‿︵‿︵‿︵︵‿︵‿︵‿︵‿︵︵‿︵‿

Zoo Hypothesis

“The zoo hypothesis speculates on the assumed behavior and existence of technologically advanced extraterrestrial life and the reasons they refrain from contacting Earth. It is one of many theoretical explanations for the Fermi paradox. The hypothesis states that alien life intentionally avoids communication with Earth to allow for natural evolution and sociocultural development, and avoiding interplanetary contamination, similarly to people observing animals at a zoo. The hypothesis seeks to explain the apparent absence of extraterrestrial life despite its generally accepted plausibility and hence the reasonable expectation of its existence. … Aliens might, for example, choose to allow contact once the human species has passed certain technological, political, or ethical standards. ” —wikipedia

Zoo Hypothesis 🐍 🐀 🐒
pZoo_hypothesis

︵‿‿︵‿︵‿︵︵‿︵‿︵‿︵‿︵︵‿︵‿︵‿‿︵︵‿︵‿︵‿︵‿︵︵‿︵‿︵‿︵‿︵︵‿︵‿

Astronomers estimate there are 36 communicating civilizations in our galaxy
https://www.advancedsciencenews.com/astronomers-estimate-there-are-36-communicating-civilizations-in-our-galaxy/

SETI: microbes may already be communicating with alien species – new research
https://sciencex.com/news/2021-05-seti-microbes-alien-species.html

Global warming as a detectable thermodynamic marker of Earth-like extrasolar civilizations: the case for a telescope like Colossus
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4541537/

Seti: why extraterrestrial intelligence is more likely to be artificial than biological
https://theconversation.com/seti-why-extraterrestrial-intelligence-is-more-likely-to-be-artificial-than-biological-169966

Drake Equation

N = the number of civilizations in our galaxy with which communication might be possible (i.e. which are on our current past light cone);

  • R∗ = the average rate of star formation in our galaxy
  • fp = the fraction of those stars that have planets
  • ne = the average number of planets that can potentially support life per star that has planets
  • fl = the fraction of planets that could support life that actually develop life at some point
  • fi = the fraction of planets with life that actually go on to develop intelligent life (civilizations)
  • fc = the fraction of civilizations that develop a technology that releases detectable signs of their existence into space
  • L = the length of time for which such civilizations release detectable signals into space

6 E Q U J 5: The Wow! Signal

“The Wow! signal was a strong narrowband radio signal received on August 15, 1977, by Ohio State University's Big Ear radio telescope, then used to support the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. The signal appeared to come from the direction of the constellation Sagittarius and bore the expected hallmarks of extraterrestrial origin.” —wikipedia

Arecibo Observatory | Arecibo Message
pArecibo_Observatory

Binary Data Signal Communication

🔑  [Key]
110 = 6
100000 = 32

data_11_mona_bw_32x32.png

The 3 digit binary number on the first line indicates the number of digits in the 2nd line which is decimal 6. The 6 digit binary number indicates the length of the lines, which is decimal 32. Inserting line breaks after every following 32 binary digits results in the 32×32 (1024 pixel resolution) bitmap. The arrangement pixels is pure 'signal data', that is, a block of 32×32 (1024 pixels), binary data of either 'on' or 'off' electrical pulses. The grid, or plane area, is then converted to a sequence of binary data, 0s and 1s that begin with the key to the 32×32 grid. A pause in transmission of the electrical pulses between the lines would indicate the key and grid structure. An end of transmission symbol in ASCII:

Back to Top


🎓 Technosignature Contact

apex_predator_penrose_superdeterminism.jpg
(Fig. 49) apex_predator_penrose
_superdeterminism.jpg

Technosignature contact is probably a quantum physics tech. singularity event, a constant in spacetime of evolution of civilizations. Just as the model of evolution of the universe defines consistent major Epochs of the unfolding of matter and space, living material may be considered the same way; evolving in epochs of organic chemicals forming into large complex molecules resulting in DNA on Earth. All life would start evolving at the same time but separated by vast distances of spacetime. Research so far has demonstrated that either Earth is a singular anomaly in this galaxy or Earth-like planets with evolving life on them are extremely rare.

Penrose Triangle
pPenrose_triangle

diag. 24
           ____
          /\   \        
         /  \   \     PENROSE
        /    \   \    TRIANGLE
       /      \   \
      /   /\   \   \
     /   /  \   \   \
    /   /    \   \   \
   /   /    / \   \   \
  /   /    /   \   \   \
 /   /    /---------'   \
/   /    /_______________\
\  /                     /
 \/_____________________/   mn

Time Function:  
Looking forward in time from its relative past that is the present.

                       Point A --------------> Point B
Point C <-------------------------------------
Point D ----------------------------------------------------->... 
penrose_diagram.png
(Fig. 49) penrose_
diagram.png

“There is a way to escape the inference of superluminal speeds and spooky action at a distance. But it involves absolute determinism in the universe, the complete absence of free will. Suppose the world is super-deterministic, with not just inanimate nature running on behind-the-scenes clockwork, but with our behavior, including our belief that we are free to choose to do one experiment rather than another, absolutely predetermined, including the "decision" by the experimenter to carry out one set of measurements rather than another, the difficulty disappears. There is no need for a faster than light signal to tell particle A what measurement has been carried out on particle B, because the universe, including particle A, already "knows" what that measurement, and its outcome, will be.”

❝No theory of reality compatible with quantum theory can require spatially separate events to be independent❞
—John Stewart Bell 🍎 (1928—1990) Physicist

Back to Top



Superdeterminism

Earth 500,000 BCE
Entangled particles —▶ 
Galactic core.

Signature waveform of manual articulation of 
simian hominid species originated and located 
on planet Earth.

Interstellar medium 
◀— Entangled particles
Earth 2020 CE

As man began to manually articulate a connection between his brain and his environment through the primitive etchings on stones, the principle of locality and the locus of control intertwined into a self-deterministic evolution yet within a deterministic structure defined by quantum mechanics, combining retro-causality and superdeterminism. The etchings are repeated from as far back as 500,000 years ago to 70,000 years ago, forming a simple symbolism of man's manual dexterity and his cave-dwelling occupations of mind and body. The simplest sign-stimulus response to these series of etchings may be rendered as a W such as if transmitted over expansive time and space.

stone_radio_signature_blombos_cave.jpg
(Fig. 51) stone_radio_signature
_blombos_cave.jpg

Man cannot escape either the species his existence is based upon or the fabric of the universe as it is and was, and influenced by a greater function of retro-causality which is semi-determinant. Every direction man turns, the cave is a prison, even the openings lead back around into the same cave. Yet man continues to construct the cave of civilization opposed to the structure of nature where he began, and he peers into the universe looking for the pathway out of the cave. The technosignature contact he ultimately receives may be his own, and from some primitive or advanced level either past or future.

We have a theoretical model of a spacetime universe, but yet lacking a thorough model of the gravitational universe, and gravity does not exhibit light; it bends it. If gravity and spacetime are the same thing, then what kind of thing exactly is unknown. Neither exhibit force or material object, except now that black holes and gravitational waves have been confirmed to exist, we have super-condensed mass/matter and wave functions to work with and may soon confirm the axion and graviton particle energy equivalents.

Negative Mass

Physicists create 'negative mass'
https://phys.org/news/2017-04-physicists-negative-mass.html

“Negative mass is a type of exotic matter whose mass is of opposite sign to the mass of normal matter, e.g. −1 kg. Such matter would violate one or more energy conditions and show some strange properties such as the oppositely oriented acceleration for negative mass. It is used in certain speculative hypothetical technologies, such as time travel to the past, construction of traversable artificial wormholes, which may also allow for time travel, Krasnikov tubes, the Alcubierre drive, and potentially other types of faster-than-light warp drives. Currently, the closest known real representative of such exotic matter is a region of negative pressure density produced by the Casimir effect.” —wikipedia

“In considering negative mass, it is important to consider which of these concepts of mass are negative. Ever since Newton first formulated his theory of gravity, there have been at least three conceptually distinct quantities called mass:”

  • inertial mass – the mass m that appears in Newton's second law of motion, F = m a
  • active gravitational mass – the mass that produces a gravitational field that other masses respond to.
  • passive gravitational mass – the mass that responds to an external gravitational field by accelerating.

“The law of conservation of momentum requires that active and passive gravitational mass be identical. Einstein's equivalence principle postulates that inertial mass must equal passive gravitational mass, and all experimental evidence to date has found these are, indeed, always the same.” —wikipedia

Exotic matter
pExotic_matter

Tachyon
“An hypothetical particle that always travels faster than light. Most physicists believe that faster-than-light particles cannot exist because they are not consistent with the known laws of physics. If such particles did exist, and could send signals faster than light, then according to the theory of relativity they would violate causality, leading to logical paradoxes of the ‘killing your own grandfather’ type. Tachyons would also exhibit the unusual property of increasing in speed as their energy decreases, and would require infinite energy to slow down to the speed of light. No experimental evidence for the existence of such particles has been found.” —wikipedia
pTachyon


layers_of_junk.jpg
(Fig. 52) layers_of_junk.jpg

The current level of technology is probably not powerful enough to locate any other planets like Earth with life evolving, and so not either any potential other civilization of beings similar to us. As well, there are probably not any other potential civilizations advanced any further. Complex molecular evolution probably did not exist at any point back in time to the earlier formation of stars and galaxies as the radio and gravitational structure was not 'settled' in the right temperate zone for constructing large organic molecules.

Technosignature contact, technological singularity, a new physics of integrated classical and quantum mechanics probably happen all at the same time, but would still require engineering far more massively powerful machines that can detect the structure of the universe with far greater resolution and utilize energy to a far greater capacity and distance. The gigantic and massively complex structure of the universe is reflected in the biochemistry and microbiology of the gigantic and massively complex real living system. According to strict physics this planet is impossible and shouldn't exist, and so it is that nature is not limited by the impossibly non-existent, but operates on the possibly existent, and which Earth obviously is.

electron_density_water_molecule.png
(Fig. 53) electron_density_
water_molecule.png

It is probably safe to assume that the determinant factor in evolution of a living system the water molecule is critical because of its structure and states of energy and matter, its chemical relation to other elements, isotopes, ions and compounds within an operative range for the assembly of large biologically active molecules given an Earth-like planet to interact with. A planet with liquid surface and atmospheric water and a thermal-geoactive crust and mantle is likely the best candidate for life as it is here.

➤ Aquatic Planets are Common in Our Milky Way Galaxy, Study Suggests
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/aquatic-planets-common-milky-way-galaxy-09382.html

➤ Astrophysicists identify large reservoirs of precursor molecules necessary for life in the birthplaces of planets
https://phys.org/news/2021-09-astrophysicists-large-reservoirs-precursor-molecules.html

➤ Evidence of superfluidity in a dipolar supersolid
https://phys.org/news/2021-03-evidence-superfluidity-dipolar-supersolid.html

➤ Determining the structure of a molecule with laser-induced electron diffraction
https://phys.org/news/2021-03-molecule-laser-induced-electron-diffraction.html

Back to Top


The Universe that Shouldn't Exist

Universe shouldn’t exist, say CERN physicists
“All of our observations find a complete symmetry between matter and antimatter, which is why the universe should not actually exist,”
https://cosmosmagazine.com/physics/universe-shouldn-t-exist-cern-physicists-conclude/

                       ▲                                      Hydrogen Atom
    Graviton  -  Anti-graviton     Proton     Antiproton     1 Proton, 1 Electron
        ▼                            +1          −1 
    (matter)     (antimatter)        electric charge   ▶ Electron -1 ▶ Positron +1

Antimatter measurement draws unjustified hype
“The framing—that the universe shouldn’t exist because of apparent matter–antimatter symmetry—overshadows the actual news.”
https://physicstoday.scitation.org/do/10.1063/pt.6.3.20171103a/full/

Antiprotons show no hint of unexpected matter-antimatter differences
“Protons and their antimatter counterparts mirror one another in a new ultra-precise measurement.”
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/antiprotons-protons-matter-antimatter-differences-physics

Particle Accelerators

Cyclotron accelerates charged particles outwards from the center of a flat cylindrical vacuum chamber along a spiral path. The particles are held to a spiral trajectory by a static magnetic field and accelerated by a rapidly varying (radio frequency) electric field. The largest cyclotron of its kind is the 17.1 m (56 ft) multimagnet TRIUMF accelerator at the University of British Columbia.

Synchrocyclotron is a special type of cyclotron in which the frequency of the driving RF electric field is varied to compensate for relativistic effects as the particles' velocity begins to approach the speed of light. This is in contrast to the classical cyclotron, where this frequency is constant. CERN’s first accelerator, provided beams for CERN's first experiments in particle and nuclear physics, up to 600 MeV.

Super Proton–Antiproton Synchrotron was a particle accelerator that operated at CERN from 1981 to 1991. To operate as a proton-antiproton collider the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) underwent substantial modifications, altering it from a one beam synchrotron to a two-beam collider. The main experiments at the accelerator were UA1 and UA2, where the W and Z boson were discovered in 1983.

CERN
“CERN is the site of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider. CERN operates a network of six accelerators and a decelerator. Each machine in the chain increases the energy of particle beams before delivering them to experiments or to the next more powerful accelerator.” —wikipedia pCERN


❝Instead of an attic with a few test tubes, bits of wire and odds and ends, the attack on the atomic nucleus has required the development and construction of great instruments on an engineering scale.❞
❝Certainly, it may bring to light such a deeper knowledge of the structure of matter as to constitute a veritable discontinuity in the progress of science.❞
—Ernest Lawrence (1901—1958) Nuclear Physicist (inventor of the Cyclotron)

In a Multiverse, What Are the Odds?
“The theory of eternal inflation casts our universe as one of countless bubbles in an eternally frothing sea.”
https://www.quantamagazine.org/the-multiverses-measure-problem-20141103

⚫ Causal Structure
pCausal_structure

diag. 25

Causal diamonds that produce more entropy contain more observers —quantamagazine
 ▲
 |        * Rare diamond, many observers
 |       ***          * Our diamond
 |      *****        ***        * Common diamond,
 |     *******      *****      *** few observers
 |    *********    *******    *****            _
 |     *******      *****      ***   High       |
 |      *****        ***        *    entropy    |
 |       ***          *              production_|      
 |        *
 Time -----------------------------▶
          Cosmological Constant

Lorentz Covariance
“Lorentz symmetry, named after Hendrik Lorentz, is an equivalence of observation or observational symmetry due to special relativity implying that the laws of physics stay the same for all observers that are moving with respect to one another within an inertial frame. It has also been described as the feature of nature that says experimental results are independent of the orientation or the boost velocity of the laboratory through space.” —wikipedia pLorentz_covariance

Back to Top


🎓 Quantum Interrogation

fishtank_within_fishtank_within_fishtank.jpg
(Fig. 54) fishtank_within_
fishtank_within_fishtank.jpg

The universe is like a giant fish tank with a variety of interesting objects placed in it. Humans discover, and are amused by, the objects, and with their monkey brains they project their experiences, fears and desires onto the objects. If the light is on inside the fish tank, all the humans see are reflections of what is inside the tank. Their projections then double confirm reality between the objects and the reflections — there is no other reality except in their imagination.

Sometimes humans get a glimpse beyond the glass wall if the light in the room is also turned on. The humans see a montage of reality between the objects inside the tank and objects outside. This condition incites wonder and sometimes madness, and a few humans work rationally to determine how the objects, reflections, and apparent reality beyond the tank all fit together. The humans imagine a fish tank within a fish tank and call the outside tank the Cosmos.

props_inside_the_cosmic_fishtank.jpg
(Fig. 55) props_inside_the_cosmic_fishtank.jpg

If the light inside the tank is turned off while the light outside is turned on, humans can see clearly the Cosmos as it really is. Human consciousness and vision at that point are challenged with a paradox between the reality of their world inside the tank and the Cosmos beyond — which one is the true reality? If both are equally real, then why is there a permanent glass wall preventing the humans from going outside? And what would happen if humans could jump out the top of the tank?


❝To think is to practice brain chemistry.❞
❝No matter how closely you examine the water, glucose, and electrolyte salts in the human brain, you can't find the point where these molecules became conscious.❞
❝Perceptual reality is different for different species. In certain species it is a mode of observation, so what we call scientific fact is actually not ultimate truth, it is perceptual experience, and it's a mode of observation.❞
❝And for me anyway, consciousness is three components: a personal component which for lack of a better word we can call the soul. A collective component which is more archetypal and a deeper level, and then a universal domain of consciousness.❞
❝Like the physical, the psychical is not necessarily in reality what it appears to us to be.❞
❝The greatest mystery of existence is existence itself.❞
—Deepak Chopra 🍎 (1946—) Metaphysicist and Philosopher


 ❏ Quantum Optics

“Quantum optics is a branch of atomic, molecular, and optical physics dealing with how individual quanta of light, known as photons, interact with atoms and molecules. It includes the study of the particle-like properties of photons. Photons have been used to test many of the counter-intuitive predictions of quantum mechanics, such as entanglement and teleportation, and are a useful resource for quantum information processing.” —wikipedia

Quantum optics
pQuantum_optics

“Quantum optics studies the nature and effects of light as quantized photons. The first major development leading to that understanding was the correct modeling of the blackbody radiation spectrum by Max Planck in 1899 under the hypothesis of light being emitted in discrete units of energy. The photoelectric effect was further evidence of this quantization as explained by Albert Einstein in a 1905 paper, a discovery for which he was to be awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921. Niels Bohr showed that the hypothesis of optical radiation being quantized corresponded to his theory of the quantized energy levels of atoms, and the spectrum of discharge emission from hydrogen in particular. The understanding of the interaction between light and matter following these developments was crucial for the development of quantum mechanics as a whole.” —wikipedia

Degree of coherence
pDegree_of_coherence


A Lichtenberg figure (Georg C. Lichtenberg (1742 – 1799) Physicist) is a branching electric discharge that sometimes appears on the surface or in the interior of insulating materials. Lichtenberg figures are often associated with the progressive deterioration of high voltage components and equipment. The study of planar Lichtenberg figures along insulating surfaces and 3D electrical trees within insulating materials often provides engineers with valuable insights for improving the long-term reliability of high-voltage equipment. Lichtenberg figures are now known to occur on or within solids, liquids, and gases during electrical breakdown. Lichtenberg figures are natural phenomena which exhibit fractal properties. The emergence of tree-like structures in nature is summarized by constructal law. —wikipedia


Constructal Law and the Unifying Principle of Design
Understanding Life through Physics
https://constructallaw.com/2020/04/22/favorite-quotes-from-the-physics-of-life/

❝Flow systems have two basic features (properties). There is the current that is flowing (for example, fluid, heat, mass, or information) and the design through which it flows.❞
❝The designs we see in nature are not the result of chance. They rise naturally, spontaneously, because they enhance access to flow…❞
❝The similarities among animals that are on the surface very different are no coincidence. In fact, animal locomotion is no different than other flows, animate and inanimate they all develop in space and in time such that they optimize the flow of material.❞
❝The fact that the same proportionalities rule optimal running, flying and swimming is not a coincidence rather it is an illustration of the fact that a universal principle is involved.❞
—Adrian Bejan 🍎 (1948—) Professor of Mechanical Engineering

Back to Top


Quantum Electronics
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/physics-and-astronomy/quantum-electronics

Dielectric
pDielectric

“In electromagnetism, a dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field. When a dielectric material is placed in an electric field, electric charges do not flow through the material as they do in an electrical conductor, but instead only slightly shift from their average equilibrium positions, causing dielectric polarization. Because of dielectric polarization, positive charges are displaced in the direction of the field and negative charges shift in the direction opposite to the field (for example, if the field is moving parallel to the positive x axis, the negative charges will shift in the negative x direction). This creates an internal electric field that reduces the overall field within the dielectric itself. If a dielectric is composed of weakly bonded molecules, those molecules not only become polarized, but also reorient so that their symmetry axes align to the field.” —wikipedia


The Cosmic Fishtank

➤ New Hubble data suggests there is an ingredient missing from current dark matter theories
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200910150348.htm

Expansion of the Universe
In June 2016, NASA and ESA scientists reported that the universe was found to be expanding 5% to 9% faster than thought earlier, based on studies using the Hubble Space Telescope.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expansion_of_the_universe

The K Correction: The adjustment to the standard relationship between absolute and apparent magnitude required to correct for the redshift effect,
“It is remarkable, that our system of fixed stars shall have such a very strong displacement of 820 km/s, and equally strange is the interpretation of the systematic constant k = + 656 km. If we ascribe a verbatim interpretation to this value, then this means that the system of spiral nebulae is drifting apart by a velocity of 656 km with respect to the momentary location of the solar system as the center.”
—Carl Wilhelm Wirtz

Back to Top


🎓   Experiential      Existential       Fifth Dimension  

➤ Mountain Gorillas are Friendly to Familiar Neighbors, New Study Finds
http://www.sci-news.com/biology/mountain-gorillas-friendly-familiar-neighbors-09002.html

❝It was their individuality combined with the shyness of their behavior that remained the most captivating impression of this first encounter with the greatest of the great apes.❞
—Dian Fossey 🍎 (1932—1985) Primatologist, Ethologist and Naturalist.
pVolcanoes_National_Park (Rwanda, Africa)


elitism_brutalism_human_mother_chimpanzee_gorilla.jpg
(Fig. 56) elitism_brutalism_
human_mother_chimpanzee_gorilla.jpg

Human Ecology: “The discipline that inquires into the patterns and process of interaction of humans with their environments. Human values, wealth, life-styles, resource use, and waste, etc. must affect and be affected by the physical and biotic environments along urban-rural gradients.” —wikipedia

❝The law is the survival of the fittest… The law is not the survival of the 'better' or the 'stronger,' if we give to those words any thing like their ordinary meanings. It is the survival of those which are constitutionally fittest to thrive under the conditions in which they are placed; and very often that which, humanly speaking, is inferiority, causes the survival❞
❝Every cause produces more than one effect.❞
—Herbert Spencer 🍎 (1946—) Biologist, Anthropologist, and Sociologist

brain_hemispheres_placental_mammal.png
(Fig. 57) brain_hemispheres_placental_mammal.png

Mind-Body Dualism: “Either the view that mental phenomena are non-physical, or that the mind and body are distinct and separable. Thus, it encompasses a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, as well as between subject and object, and is contrasted with other positions, such as physicalism and enactivism, in the mind–body problem.” —wikipedia

Level of consciousness ( Esotericism)
pLevel_of_consciousness_(Esotericism)

Neural Oscillation
“Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system. Neural tissue can generate oscillatory activity in many ways, driven either by mechanisms within individual neurons or by interactions between neurons. In individual neurons, oscillations can appear either as oscillations in membrane potential or as rhythmic patterns of action potentials, which then produce oscillatory activation of post-synaptic neurons. At the level of neural ensembles, synchronized activity of large numbers of neurons can give rise to macroscopic oscillations, which can be observed in an electroencephalogram. Oscillatory activity in groups of neurons generally arises from feedback connections between the neurons that result in the synchronization of their firing patterns. The interaction between neurons can give rise to oscillations at a different frequency than the firing frequency of individual neurons. A well-known example of macroscopic neural oscillations is alpha activity.”
pNeural_oscillation


In the last analysis the entire field of psychology may reduce to biological electrochemistry.
❝The mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its bulk above water.❞
❝Perception is less of a recording system and more of a protection system against external stimuli.❞
❝The primitive stages can always be re-established; the primitive mind is, in the fullest meaning of the word, imperishable.❞
❝Like the physical, the psychical is not necessarily in reality what it appears to us to be.❞
❝Thinking in pictures is, therefore, only a very incomplete form of becoming conscious. In some way, too, it stands nearer to unconscious processes than does thinking in words, and it is unquestionably older than the latter both ontogenetically and phylogenetically.❞
❝But the less a man knows about the past and the present the more insecure must prove to be his judgment of the future.❞
❝Men have gained control over the forces of nature to such an extent that with their help they would have no difficulty exterminating one another to the last man.❞
Intelligence will be used in the service of the neurosis.❞
❝Even if all parts of a problem seem to fit together like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, one has to remember that the probable need not necessarily be the truth and the truth not always probable.❞
❝Nature delights in making use of the same forms in the most various biological connections: as it does, for instance, in the appearance of branch-like structures both in coral and in plants, and indeed in some forms of crystal and in certain chemical precipitates.❞
❝We are what we are because we have been what we have been, and what is needed for solving the problems of human life and motives is not moral estimates but more knowledge.❞
—Sigmund Freud 🍎🍎 (1856—1939) Neurologist

The Exponential Curve and Tipping Point

diag. 26
Exponential Growth — Positive Entropy ——▶ 
x          x point of no return        
    x      │
       x   │        
         x ▼ ecosystem failure
          xx civil system failure
         x x technological failure
       x   x
    x      x fatality of planetary ecosystem 
x            and civilization
Exponential Decay
           │
Extinction x — Negative Entropy ——▶ 
Event        Restabilization 

The Holocene epoch may represent both the beginning of evolution of a new hominid species in lineage from humans and a process of natural extinction that procures the natural selection of a new species. The determinant cause of the collapse of Earth's current natural ecology is only partially anthropogenic. Current social sciences projections are that human civilization will collapse into global violent conflict within 5 to 10 years, and current physical sciences projections are that most of the Earth will become uninhabitable within 30 to 50 years.

❝The existence of life must be considered as an elementary fact that can not be explained, but must be taken as a starting point in biology, in a similar way as the quantum of action, which appears as an irrational element from the point of view of classical mechanical physics, taken together with the existence of elementary particles, forms the foundation of atomic physics. The asserted impossibility of a physical or chemical explanation of the function peculiar to life would in this sense be analogous to the insufficiency of the mechanical analysis for the understanding of the stability of atoms.❞
❝Isolated material particles are abstractions, their properties being definable and observable only through their interaction with other systems.❞
—Niels Bohr 🍎🍎 (1885—1962) Theoretical Physicist and Scientific Philosopher

Back to Top


🎓 Function and Operation of Systems

A condition of static function and no operation especially applies to abiotic systems, and which is anything and everything except a living system, and also in which entropy accelerates toward thermodynamic equilibrium.


Operation: Accurate evaluation of bioevolution  

Function: Accurate evaluation of cosmic evolution
skipping_stone_function_dolphin_operation.jpg
(Fig. 58) skipping_stone_function
_dolphin_operation.jpg

It may be considered that each evolution and system does exist regardless of whether humans exist to either directly observe or scientifically study them. There must exist a certain degree of accuracy in what humans observe and scientifically study. Whereas the animal brain wants to see things according to animal operation, the intellectual human brain wants to see things according to its higher functional capabilities.

Operation is more a 'verb' denoting active function, while a function may be a static operation. Using semantic properties of language, the higher brain can do work that is not language or symbol restricted, and that may generate a fabric of comprehension accurate to actual nature over the abstraction of it. Mathematics is both pure abstraction and high level language.

“The giant dolphin's time as an ancient predator ended around 23 million years ago, when it became extinct. Since then, other whales and dolphins have taken turns, but today the only echolocating whale that's also an apex predator is the orca.” —sciencealert

Large Dolphin from Oligocene Epoch was Fast-Swimming Apex Predator
http://www.sci-news.com/paleontology/ankylorhiza-tiedemani-08626.html

“Humans and dolphins have a similar evolution, complex mammals which have gone from omnivore to carnivore to omnivore, retaining the predatory instincts deep in the components of their brains. Both species easily become excessively aggressive under pressure. Humans anthropomorphize that dolphins and chimpanzees are friendly and tame, and that gorillas are hostile and aggressive, oppositely dolphins and chimpanzees are unstable animals that easily become hostile. Gorillas are generally more tolerant of stress as they are not predators.”

Anthropomorphism
pAnthropomorphism

Aggressive Behavior of Chimpanzees and Baboons in Natural Habitats.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080170077500227

Chimpanzee friends fight together to battle rivals.
https://phys.org/news/2021-01-chimpanzee-friends-rivals.html

Chimpanzees unite against a common enemy.
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-chimpanzees-common-enemy.html

Humans were apex predators for two million years
https://phys.org/news/2021-04-humans-apex-predators-million-years.html


Apex Predatory Dolphin —▶ Modern Dolphin Carnivore
Predatory Chimpanzee   —▶ Modern Super-Omnivore Human
Carnivorous Rodents    —▶ Sex-fear-aggressive Modern Rodents
                          Breakdown of neural, genetic, hormonal
                          sex-differentiation function and operation

Boreoeutheria

“The earliest known fossils belonging to this group date to about 65 million years ago, shortly after the K-Pg extinction event, though molecular data suggest they may have originated earlier, during the Cretaceous period.” —wikipedia

Euarchontoglires
        Scandentia (treeshrews) 
        Glires   Rodentia (rodents) 
        Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, pikas) 
 Primatomorpha   
        Dermoptera (Colugos) 
        †Plesiadapiformes 

Primates —▶ Humans —▶ Boreoeutherial Extinction Event

  1. Acceleration of oxidation, acidification and liquifaction of Earth's biosphere.
  2. Acceleration of astrophysical and terrestrial fossil object identification.
  3. Acceleration of irrational, fantasy and ego-aggressive cognition-behavior.
  4. Acceleration of displacement and misdirection of human and natural resources.
  5. Acceleration of weapons development, residential, commercial and industrial construction.
  6. Acceleration of loss of biodiversity and polar magnetic shift.
  7. Acceleration of comprehension of moral structure in biological and physical nature.

The Boreoeutherial extinction includes extinction of all placental mammals, birds and forests, reducing Earth's biomes to semi and high deserts with minimal glaciation, land masses and oceanic life. Earth returns to the age of the dinosaurs except without the dinosaurs — the logical bioevolutionary pathway. Given that mammals have exhibited a resilience in evolution capability evolving twice in the water and twice on land, lower forms of mammal may adapt to an acidic and oxidized biosphere. Earth becomes combined of properties of Venus and Mars, and which explains the 'quest' for Mars survivalism in the space program.


Is there anybody out there?

right_angle_radio_signal.jpg
(Fig. 59) right_angle_
radio_signal.jpg

65 million years ago and 65 million light years are two different measurements of spacetime, but the square of light times mass equates energy, and such is the technosignature of an equivalent civilization to humans on Earth today indicated by a congruent luminous right-angle. Space is bigger than time and light is faster than mass.

Theoretical Retro-Causality from Virtual to Practical Relative Present

diag. 27
Random and Uniform Field  Logic Gate
Qubits                    Polar Divergence      
🌕  🌕 🌑🌕🌑🌕  🌕 🌑 🌕    |  🌑     |         /Material Gate
🌕🌑 🌕  🌕  🌕🌑🌕  🌑🌕🌑  | /  \    |        /
🌕  🌕🌑 🌕  🌕🌑 🌕 🌑🌕    🌑    \   |       /   Wave-Particle-Form
🌑  🌕  🌕  🌕  🌕🌑  🌕🌑  |         |      /      _       _🌕_
🌕  🌕 🌑🌕🌑🌕  🌕 🌑 🌕    |      🌑🌕 🌑🌕 🌑🌕  _/ \     /    \_
🌕  🌕🌑 🌕  🌕🌑 🌕 🌑🌕    |         |      \       \_🌑_/    
🌕🌑 🌕  🌕  🌕🌑🌕  🌑🌕🌑   🌕    /   |       \
🌑  🌕  🌕  🌕  🌕🌑  🌕🌑   | \  /    | Physical Gate
🌕  🌕 🌑🌕🌑🌕  🌕 🌑 🌕    |   🌕     | Linear Convergence 
                          Mechanical Wave

Coherent virtual absorption of elastodynamic waves
https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/8/eaaw3255

Back to Top


🎓 The NucleoTide(al) Wave: Science-Function over Fiction

closed_sign.jpg
(Fig. 60) closed_sign.jpg

Amino acids are found in meteorites and so occur naturally, but Nucleotides (RNA and DNA) are a complex of organization of nature listing ingredients for assembling proteins without revealing any instructions. What initiates cell division is yet an unknown as are the instructions that go along with DNA. There is no known language of DNA, but the instructions exist somewhere in the universe, and quantum mechanics and information theory may facilitate some advanced language comprehension, not just some strung-together big fancy words that sound good in a sci-fi movie or TV commercial.

Researchers create artificial cell cortex, a system to study how cells divide
When a cell divides, it pinches in the middle and splits in two. We also see these wave patterns form in cells, and we see that they're associated with cell division,
https://phys.org/news/2021-12-artificial-cell-cortex-cells.html

bobo_doll_social_learning.jpg
(Fig. 61) bobo_doll
_social_learning.jpg

Humans have survived through several major plagues since historical times and carry a multitude of antigens and immune instruction sets from natural evolution. Humans also have cell and organ barrier systems and mammalian responses to shock and trauma programmed into their bodies, but all such natural defense systems are limited by the damages they do to each other and the environment. No animal, including humans, actually does damage to itself, but only is damaged, and only humans do (deliberate) damage. The classic psychology Bobo Clown experiment yet evidences the 'human see, human do' social-learning breakdown.

earth_natural_shields.jpg
(Fig. 62) earth_natural
_shields.jpg

The Earth is also naturally defended. The Earth's magnetic field protects from solar wind radiation, and the sun's heliosphere protects from interstellar radiation. Surface albedo on Earth protects from excess heat. The solar system as a whole is organized over its history such that Earth is mostly safe from deadly impact of objects and radio waves.

Loss of surface albedo and the arctic ice-pack over water is accelerating loss of biodiversity, global warming and disturbance of the Gulf Stream, Jet Stream and Thermohaline Circulation. Overall, in biological terms, Earth's homeostasis is in critical condition, and as humans are biological beings, their homeostatic functions will increasingly graduate toward critical condition either directly or indirectly as a result.

Shutdown of thermohaline circulation
pShutdown_of_thermohaline_circulation

Abrupt Climate Change During the Last Ice Age
Unlike the relatively stable climate Earth has experienced over the last 10,000 years, Earth's climate system underwent a series of abrupt oscillations and reorganizations during the last ice age between 18,000 and 80,000 years ago.
https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/abrupt-climate-change-during-the-last-ice-24288097/

Are disaster scenarios about tipping points like ‘turning off the Gulf Stream’ and release of methane from the Arctic a cause for concern?
https://royalsociety.org/topics-policy/projects/climate-change-evidence-causes/question-19/

Gulf Stream System at its weakest in over a millennium
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/02/210225113357.htm

➤ STREAMCODE – PLANKTONIC DIVERSITY OF THE GULF STREAM
“Zooplankton are divided into two groups, the meroplankton, which spend only a portion of their life cycle in the water column, and the holoplankton, which spend their entire lives in the water column. Both groups of plankton play extremely important roles in the survival of larger marine species, like fish and mammals, and drive the movements of the larger animals. The diversity of plankton is also essential to the extremely complex food web that drives nutrient cycling from the ocean to the atmosphere and basic services provided by the world’s ocean—like oxygen provided by the tiny plants called phytoplankton and carbon sequestration in the ocean.”
https://ocean.si.edu/planet-ocean/tides-currents/streamcode-planktonic-diversity-gulf-stream

 ❏ The Polar Ice Caps: Antarctica and the Arctic

The Cryosphere: “is an all-encompassing term for those portions of Earth's surface where water is in solid form, including sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, and frozen ground (which includes permafrost). Thus, there is a wide overlap with the hydrosphere. The cryosphere is an integral part of the global climate system with important linkages and feedbacks generated through its influence on surface energy and moisture fluxes, clouds, precipitation, hydrology, atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Through these feedback processes, the cryosphere plays a significant role in the global climate and in climate model response to global changes. The term deglaciation describes the retreat of cryospheric features.” —wikipedia
pCryosphere

Routes to global glaciation
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspa.2020.0303

There’s Been a Six-Fold Increase in Polar Ice Cap Melting Since the 1990s
https://e360.yale.edu/digest/theres-been-a-six-fold-increase-in-polar-ice-cap-melting-since-the-1990s

Antarctic Circumpolar Current flows more rapidly in warm phases
In future the intensity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current could increase, accelerating climate change
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/06/210624114407.htm


Microbial Succession

Deep Frozen Arctic Microbes Are Waking Up
Thawing permafrost is releasing microorganisms, with consequences that are still largely unknown
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/deep-frozen-arctic-microbes-are-waking-up/

The greatest threat to homo sapiens may be microbiological either as man-made weapons or by natural cause. When the dinosaurs roamed the Earth what would evolve into humans were just tiny rodent-like creatures scurrying around, too small and agile for the big reptiles to prey upon. Smaller than the humans are the microbes and insects that constantly are naturally selected under evolutionary pressure to resist and attack humans. Ecological succession will make the most effective pathogens widespread to a climax community preceding mass extinction.

global_warming.jpg
(Fig. 63) global_warming.jpg

The ultimate advantage smaller species have is the same as with the dinosaurs that were so busy preying on and battling each other and devouring everything, the smaller species could overthrow their empire, but nature had to help by throwing an asteroid at the Earth to accelerate the process. Global warming may be the giant asteroid in the current evolutionary contest. Under the self-regulation theory ( Gaia Hypothesis) taken to a geomorphic level, a radical event as equally devastating to human life and civilization, but evidence shows natural cycles in geological and climatological activity regardless of biotics.

A pulse of the Earth:
A 27.5-Myr underlying cycle in coordinated geological events over the last 260 Myr

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1674987121001092

High-fidelity record of Earth's climate history puts current changes in context
https://phys.org/news/2020-09-high-fidelity-earth-climate-history-current.html


Volcanic Activity Impacts

How Volcanoes Influence Climate
https://scied.ucar.edu/shortcontent/how-volcanoes-influence-climate

“The gases and dust particles thrown into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions have influences on climate. Most of the particles spewed from volcanoes cool the planet by shading incoming solar radiation. The cooling effect can last for months to years depending on the characteristics of the eruption.”

Loss of Ozone Triggered by Ancient Volcanic Eruption
“A catastrophic drop in atmospheric ozone levels around the tropics is likely to have contributed to a bottleneck in the human population around 60 to 100,000 years ago, an international research team has suggested.”
https://www.technologynetworks.com/applied-sciences/news/loss-of-ozone-triggered-by-ancient-volcanic-eruption-349394

Chain of Alaskan islands might really be one monster volcano
https://www.livescience.com/small-islands-one-big-volcano.html

What would happen if a supervolcano eruption occurred again at Yellowstone?
https://www.usgs.gov/faqs/what-would-happen-if-a-supervolcano-eruption-occurred-again-yellowstone?qt-news_science_products=0

Driver of the largest mass extinction in the history of the Earth identified
https://phys.org/news/2020-10-driver-largest-mass-extinction-history.html

Volcanic eruptions directly triggered ocean acidification during Early Cretaceous
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/12/201221160419.htm

“Highly active periods of volcanism in what are called large igneous provinces have produced huge oceanic plateaus and flood basalts in the past. These can comprise hundreds of large eruptions, producing millions of cubic kilometers of lava in total. No large eruptions of flood basalts have occurred in human history, the most recent having occurred over 10 million years ago. They are often associated with breakup of supercontinents such as Pangea in the geologic record, and may have contributed to a number of mass extinctions.” —wikipedia


Global Warming

Concurrent heatwaves seven times more frequent than 1980s
https://phys.org/news/2021-12-concurrent-heatwaves-frequent-1980s.html

Global Mean Temperature Difference from 1850 ▬ 2020 ℃


diag. 28
Nine of the 10 warmest years since 1880 have occurred since 2005

 public.wmo.int                                                                 .--
     -`:                                                                       ohs
 1.2 ` `                                                                     ` yo-
     -`-                                                                ` `-.o-+`
 1.0 ` `                                                                o.+ssh/. 
     :.:                                                             ` `moo/o-. 
 0.8 .`.                                                         `  .y`hyh `. 
     -`-                                                         o:`dy+h-/ 
 0.6 .`.                                        `-+   `       ``/hd+/-h. 
     -`-               .                       .+os- -/`-.` ` o-m.os  . 
 0.4 . `              `+                   .`- ::..o.+s:+o/.o+yoo `. 
     -`.    .`        -:.`      .     :  `.+/+:/`  //s/o `/o++/h` 
 0.2 .`.    :..: `....:.:/ /- ::o```  h ://+h+s-    -..:  /.  ./
     -`-   `. ::-s````:  //+s-oo`:/: .://::`s.- 
-0.2 -`.      ` -.       `:--:`` ::/.+`y    . 

    __   __  __                 __   __   __                     __   __  __               __   __   __             __   __  __   __
/| (__) |_  /  \            /| (__\ /  \ /  \                /| (__\ |_  /  \          /| (__\ (__) |_              _) /  \  _) /  \
 | (__) __) \__/             |  __/ \__/ \__/                 |  __/ __) \__/           |  __/ (__) __)            /__ \__/ /__ \__/
 1850                 1900               1950          1985             2020           

According to NOAA’s analysis, 2018 marked the 42nd year in a row of temperatures warmer than the 20th-century average — dating back to 1977. “Nine of the 10 warmest years have occurred since 2005, with the last five years comprising the five hottest,” “The differences in average global temperatures among the three warmest years – 2016, 2019 and 2020 – are indistinguishably small.” —public.wmo.int

Global warming poses threat to food chains
https://phys.org/news/2021-03-global-poses-threat-food-chains.html

Just ten percent of the global terrestrial protected area network is structurally connected via intact land
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18457-x

'Ecological Ponzi scheme threatens to bring down humanity, scientists warn
https://news.trust.org/item/20210113154414-6pyc9/

'Global economic policies driving toward a climate crisis
Growth-driven economic scenarios assume that nations must continue to raise their gross domestic product (GDP) by increasing the production of goods and services in order to progress economically and socially. Subsequently this creates an increase in the demand for energy and an inevitable rise in carbon emissions.
https://phys.org/news/2021-08-global-economic-policies-climate-crisis.html


dna.png The Building Blocks of Life

diag. 29
COMPLIMENTARY BASE PAIRING
(==(     )==)
 `-.`. ,',-'
    _,-'"
 ,-',' `.`-.
(==(     )==)
 `-.`. ,',-'
    _,-'"
 ,-',' `.`-.
(==(     )==)
 `-.`. ,',-'
    _,-'"
 ,-',' `.`-.
(==(     )==)

“Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes. RNA and DNA are nucleic acids. Along with lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, nucleic acids constitute one of the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA, RNA is found in nature as a single strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double strand. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases of guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs synthesis of specific proteins. Many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome.” —wikipedia

A base-paired DNA sequence: 
   
 ATCGATTGAGCTCTAGCG
 TAGCTAACTCGAGATCGC

The corresponding RNA sequence, 
in which uracil is substituted   AUCGAUUGAGCUCUAGCG
for thymine in the RNA strand:   UAGCUAACUCGAGAUCGC

❝Of the nucleosides from deoxyribonucleic acids, all that was known with any certainty [in the 1940s] was that they were 2-deoxy-­D-ribosides of the bases adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine and it was assumed that they were structurally analogous to the ribonucleosides. The chemistry of the nucleotides—the phosphates of the nucleosides—was in a correspondingly primitive state. It may well be asked why the chemistry of these groups of compounds was not further advanced, particularly since we recognize today that they occupy a central place in the history of the living cell. True, their full significance was for a long time unrecognized and emerged only slowly as biochemical research got into its stride but I think a more important reason is to be found in the physical properties of compounds of the nucleotide group. As water-soluble polar compounds with no proper melting points they were extremely difficult to handle by the classic techniques of organic chemistry, and were accordingly very discouraging substances to early workers. It is surely no accident that the major advances in the field have coincided with the appearance of new experimental techniques such as paper and ion-exchange chromatography, paper electrophoresis, and countercurrent distribution, peculiarly appropriate to the compounds of this group.❞
—Alexander R. Todd 🍎(1907—1997) Biochemist

Back to Top


🎓 Doomsday and Beyond 🐍 🐀 🐒

triune_brain.png
(Fig. 64) triune_brain.png

The 20th century began as a revolutionary era, humans mostly changed social structure from monarchies to civil nation states, science moved ahead rapidly as theological foundations no longer restricted the moral pursuit of knowledge. Warfare, hierarchy and territoriality changed form, from being strictly a social biological condition of the human species to a more ideological operation. Political, social and economics sciences mostly replaced naturalist, mystical and theological philosophies. Essential to the intellectual advances were the sciences of neurology and psychiatry, the beginning of study of how cognition and behavior are determined by the physical body made up of cells and organs.

antineutrino_emission_radiation.jpg
(Fig. 65) antineutrino_emission
_radiation.jpg

In the 20th century humans detonated nuclear bombs, discovered the fact of life in the form of DNA, and walked on the moon, and these technological achievements seemed to be certain to pave the way to utopia, a high energy, super-healthy, space-age civilization. Worshipping nature is something humans have done since the cultural explosion that took place over 25,000 years ago before any civil structures emerged. Appeasement became a way humans survived over the powers of nature's wrath. Humans are probably now permanently engaged in sociobiological warfare combined with natural microbiological warfare and pestilence which also will accelerate maladaptive behaviors.

doomsday_biological_astrophysical_clock.jpg
(Fig. 66) doomsday_biological_astrophysical_clock.jpg
A Dangerous Triad

⚠️ Microbiological Weapons

➤ Neuroscience—and the new weapons of the mind
https://thebulletin.org/2017/10/neuroscience-and-the-new-weapons-of-the-mind/

⚠️ Tyranny of the Power Elite

❝The immediate cause of World War III is the military preparation of it.❞
❝All politics is a struggle for power; the ultimate kind of power is violence.❞
❝People with advantages are loath to believe that they just happen to be people with advantages. They come readily to define themselves as inherently worthy of what they possess; they come to believe themselves 'naturally' elite; and, in fact, to imagine their possessions and their privileges as natural extensions of their own elite selves.❞
❝Nobody talks more of free enterprise and competition and of the best man winning than the man who inherited his father's store or farm.❞
❝Those in authority within institutions and social structures attempt to justify their rule by linking it, as if it were a necessary consequence, with moral symbols, sacred emblems, or legal formulae which are widely believed and deeply internalized. These central conceptions may refer to a god or gods, the 'votes of the majority,' the 'will of the people,' the 'aristocracy of talents or wealth,' to the 'divine right of kings' or to the alleged extraordinary endowment of the person of the ruler himself.❞
❝Power is not of a man. Wealth does not center in the person of the wealthy. Celebrity is not inherent in any personality. To be celebrated, to be wealthy, to have power requires access to major institutions.❞
❝Commercial jazz, soap opera, pulp fiction, comic strips, the movies set the images, mannerisms, standards, and aims of the urban masses. In one way or another, everyone is equal before these cultural machines; like technology itself, the mass media are nearly universal in their incidence and appeal. They are a kind of common denominator, a kind of scheme for pre-scheduled, mass emotions.❞
❝When white-collar people get jobs, they sell not only their time and energy, but their personalities as well. They sell by the week, or month, their smiles and their kindly gestures, and they must practice that prompt repression of resentment and aggression.❞
❝What I am asserting is that in this particular epoch a conjunction of historical circumstances has led to the rise of an elite of power; that the men of the circles composing this elite, severally and collectively, now make such key decisions as are made; and that, given the enlargement and the centralization of the means of power now available, the decisions that they make and fail to make carry more consequences for more people than has ever been the case in the world history of mankind.❞
—C. Wright Mills 🍎(1916—1962) Sociologist and Professor of Sociology

⚠️ Devastation of Nature

➤ The Crisis of the Natural World
https://www.counterpunch.org/2021/05/21/the-crisis-of-the-natural-world/

  • Nearly one-third of freshwater species are facing extinction.
  • So are 40 percent of amphibians;
  • 84 percent of large mammals;
  • a third of reef-building corals; and
  • nearly one-third of oak trees.
  • Rhinos and elephants are being gunned down at rates so alarming that they could be completely wiped out from the wild by 2034.
  • There may be fewer than 10 vaquita—a kind of porpoise endemic to Mexico’s Gulf of California—due to illegal fishing nets, pesticides and irrigation.
  • There are 130,000 plant species that could become extinct in our lifetimes.
  • All told, about 28 percent of evaluated plant and animal species across the planet are now at risk of becoming extinct.
  • The rapid decline in species has occurred in recent years: 60 percent of the planet’s wildlife populations have been lost in just the last 50 years.
  • Scientists warn that in the coming decades, if we don’t take action, more than 1 million species may vanish from the Earth forever.

Collapse of the Simian Hierarchy

collapse_of_simian_hierarchy.png
(Fig. 67) collapse_of_simian_hierarchy.png

T he ascent of man may be considered as a complex of cultural and civil evolution, or simply as the realization of the descent of man, and when such a realization is considered accurate, there is no more construction of simian hierarchies disguised as structures representing man. Man becomes capable of accurate relation to all of primates including himself in his own dignity and moral comprehension advanced from all other primates.

flooding_earth_heat_convection.jpg
(Fig. 68) flooding_earth_
heat_convection.jpg

Nature's evolutionary pathway is evidently moral in the sense that it follows a certain path continuing the living system, and along the way of constructing empires with a self-deceptive electrochemically-driven ape-based brain, human tendency to worship idols of ego, authority and wealth will likely continue, and what is beyond is unknown except that it is consistent with the uncharted course of evolution of the living system.

We look to Mars and think that what should be happening over there is some warming and liquidation of the surface to make it a habitable planet, and the panspermia theory fits that projection only to realize how complex the living planetary body of Earth actually is and how fragile are large organic molecules. Earth likely ejected some organic materials to both Venus and Mars making the panspermia theory look plausible.


❝There are two parts to the human dilemma. One is the belief that the end justifies the means. That push-button philosophy, that deliberate deafness to suffering, has become the monster in the war machine. The other is the betrayal of the human spirit: the assertion of dogma that closes the mind, and turns a nation, a civilization, into a regiment of ghosts--obedient ghosts or tortured ghosts.❞
❝There are three creative ideas which, each in its turn, have been central to science. They are the idea of order, the idea of causes, and the idea of chance.❞
❝The largest single step in the ascent of man is the change from nomad to village agriculture.❞
—Jacob Bronowski 🍎(1908—1974) Mathematician and Historian


💦 World Water War and Aquifer Depletion

world_war_water.jpg
(Fig. 69) world_war_water.jpg

Environmental determinism is the theory that human behavior is a logical response to the natural condition. Humans are engaged in a feedback loop whereby they deplete resources and then must adjust to a new condition. The 20th century provided far more effective engineering of weapons so the usual pattern repeats itself as humans build more weapons in anticipation of further conflict over resources. At every turn in history, humans make the same decision to make more war tools and build more tyrannical hierarchies.

plastic_pollution_deforestation.jpg
(Fig. 70) plastic_pollution_deforestation.jpg

Humans prove in a variety of psychology experiments to be far too conformist ( Asch conformity experiments) and obedient ( Milgram experiment) , but given that they are born completely helpless and dependent, adverse significant other relation and socialization may be attributed to the simian human condition. The simian hierarchy only achieves excessive and mass human developmental impairment, but as its imperialist and oligarchic order magnifies in industrial, population and military proportions, it becomes increasingly less likely that humans will change course. Like lemmings, humans are more likely to follow the leader over the edge of a cliff. The 'leaders' can only keep raising the benefits and rewards to the armies of social controllers for so long before the damages to human society and the environment overwhelm and collapse civilization.

💦 Water Scarcity
pWater_scarcity

Number of people suffering extreme droughts will double
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/01/210111125605.htm

20% of groundwater wells around the world at risk of running dry, study says
https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2021/04/22/groundwater-wells-global-aquifer-depletion/3471619114408/

Wealthy US cities struggle to provide running water for all residents
https://www.newscientist.com/article/2258717-wealthy-us-cities-struggle-to-provide-running-water-for-all-residents/

Study: About half of global wastewater is treated
https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2021/02/08/Study-About-half-of-global-wastewater-is-treated/8621612803918/

Back to Top


Natural and Anthropogenic Climate Change

Graphing the Extent of Physical and Material Interactions of Earth's Properties

The Earth is a dynamic planet in a dynamic solar system. Even if all human impacts were removed, the Earth would still undergo dynamic change. Anthropogenic factors not only accelerate climate change but heavily impact the biotic adaptations to natural geomorphology and climatology. Human impact may determine the collapse of the entire biosphere.

List of periods and events in climate history
pList_of_periods_and_events_in_climate_history
Human impact on the environment
pHuman_impact_on_the_environment

➤ Regional and global forcing of glacier retreat during the last deglaciation
https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms9059

➤ Arctic Sea Ice is not freezing In October for the first time since measurements began, now having an unknown effect on weather development towards Winter
https://www.severe-weather.eu/news/arctic-ocean-sea-ice-2020-jet-stream-effect-winter-fa/

➤ Antarctic ice dynamics amplified by Northern Hemisphere sea-level forcing
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2916-2

➤ Antarctica’s Ice Shelves May Be at Growing Risk of Collapse
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/
antarcticas-ice-shelves-may-be-at-growing-risk-of-collapse/

➤ How icebergs really melt—and what this could mean for climate change
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-icebergs-meltand-climate.html

➤ Continued warming to put one-third of Antarctic ice shelves at risk of collapse
https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2021/04/08/britain-antarctica-ice-shelf-collapse-warming/5611617823534/


Movements of Fire and Ice

NASA Earth Observatory, Global Fires
https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/global-maps/MOD14A1_M_FIRE

The Planet’s Temperature is Rising
https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/planets-temperature-rising

It’s Not Just the West. These Places Are Also on Fire.
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/09/16/climate/wildfires-globally.html

Last month the hottest November on record: EU
https://phys.org/news/2020-12-month-hottest-november-eu.html

Northern Hemisphere summers may last nearly half the year by 2100
https://phys.org/news/2021-03-northern-hemisphere-summers-year.html

Sea-level rise will have complex consequences
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/11/201104131520.htm

Past is key to predicting future climate, scientists say
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/11/201105183809.htm

9_earth_science_res.jpg

Earth science
pEarth_science

Conservation

❝The more clearly we can focus our attention on the wonders and realities of the universe about us, the less taste we shall have for destruction.❞
❝We are not truly civilized if we concern ourselves only with the relation of man to man. What is important is the relation of man to all life.❞
❝Only within the 20th Century has biological thought been focused on ecology, or the relation of the living creature to its environment. Awareness of ecological relationships is - or should be - the basis of modern conservation programs, for it is useless to attempt to preserve a living species unless the kind of land or water it requires is also preserved. So delicately interwoven are the relationships that when we disturb one thread of the community fabric we alter it all - perhaps almost imperceptibly, perhaps so drastically that destruction follows.❞
—Rachel Carson 🍎(1907—1964) Marine Biologist and Conservationist

Back to Top


Sea Ice Decline
pArctic_sea_ice_decline

The climate changed rapidly alongside sea ice decline in the north
https://phys.org/news/2020-12-climate-rapidly-sea-ice-decline.html

Global ice loss rate is accelerating, study finds
https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2021/01/25/Global-ice-loss-rate-is-accelerating-study-finds/5111611553528/

Ice sheet uncertainties could mean sea level will rise more than predicted
https://phys.org/news/2020-12-ice-sheet-uncertainties-sea.html

World's largest iceberg breaks off Antarctica: European Space Agency
https://phys.org/news/2021-05-world-largest-iceberg-antarctica-european.html

Greenland melting likely increased by bacteria in sediment
https://phys.org/news/2021-01-greenland-bacteria-sediment.html

Scientists discover large rift in the Arctic's last bastion of thick sea ice 
https://phys.org/news/2021-10-scientists-large-rift-arctic-bastion.html

⚫ Iceberg A-68 calved from the Larsen C Ice Shelf in July 2017. With a surface area of 5,800 square kilometres (2200 sq. mi.), twice the size of Luxembourg, larger than Delaware and weighing an estimated one trillion tonnes, it is one of the largest recorded icebergs, the largest being B-15 which measured 11,000 square kilometres (4250 sq. mi.) before breaking up.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iceberg_A-68


 ❏ Microplastics

⚫ Microplastics
pMicroplastics

➤ Environmental scientists cite need for studies looking into impact of microplastics
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-environmental-scientists-cite-impact-microplastics.html

Plasticenta: First evidence of microplastics in human placenta
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412020322297

  • For the first time microplastics were detected by Raman microspectroscopy in human placentas.
  • Microplastics were found in all placental portions: maternal, fetal and amniochorial membranes.
  • Microplastics carry with them substances which acting as endocrine disruptors could cause long-term effects on human health.

➤ Plasticenta: First evidence of microplastics in human placenta
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33395930/

Islands of Plastic Garbage

Plastic pollution is everywhere. Study reveals how it travels
https://phys.org/news/2020-11-plastic-pollution-reveals.html

How does plastic debris make its way into ocean garbage patches?
https://phys.org/news/2021-03-plastic-debris-ocean-garbage-patches.html

Plastic planet: Tracking pervasive microplastics across the globe
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210412161911.htm

Plastic pollution in the deep sea: A geological perspective
https://phys.org/news/2021-05-plastic-pollution-deep-sea-geological.html

Research shows how plastics threaten biodiversity of marine life
https://phys.org/news/2021-10-plastics-threaten-biodiversity-marine-life.html

Microplastics are in the air we breathe and in Earth's atmosphere, and they affect the climate
https://phys.org/news/2021-10-microplastics-air-earth-atmosphere-affect.html


Phosphorous Depletion

➤ Worldwide loss of phosphorus due to soil erosion quantified for the first time
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200911093014.htm

Nitrous Oxide Pollution

“Warming of arctic soils and thawing of permafrost thus can have substantial consequences for the global climate, as the large C and N stores could be released to the atmosphere as the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The release of these heat-trapping gases, in turn, has the potential to further enhance climate warming.

➤ Nitrous oxide emissions pose an increasing climate threat
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201007123131.htm

➤ Enhanced nitrous oxide emissions found in field warming experiment in the Arctic
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161121165458.htm

Methane Pollution

➤ An increase in methane emissions from tropical Africa between 2010 and 2016 inferred from satellite data
https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/19/14721/2019/

➤ EXCLUSIVE: Gas infrastructure across Europe leaking planet-warming methane
https://www.reuters.com/business/environment/exclusive-gas-infrastructure-across-europe-leaking-planet-warming-methane-video-2021-06-24/

Carbon Pollution

➤ Health crisis: Up to a billion tons of waste potentially burned in the open every year
https://phys.org/news/2021-01-health-crisis-billion-tons-potentially.html

➤ Permafrost carbon feedbacks threaten global climate goals
https://phys.org/news/2021-05-permafrost-carbon-feedbacks-threaten-global.html

➤ A spatial emergent constraint on the sensitivity of soil carbon turnover to global warming
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19208-8


Oceanic Homeostasis • Warming • Acidification • Suffocation

Ocean Deoxygenation
pOcean_deoxygenation

Climate change responsible for record sea temperature levels.
“The Ocean State Report identifies other major strains on the world's seas and oceans from climate change including acidification caused by carbon dioxide uptake from the atmosphere, sea level rise, loss of oxygen and sea ice retreat.”
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201002105743.htm

➤ Climate change sea level rises could increase risk for more devastating tsunamis worldwide
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180815141444.htm

➤ Turf wars: Ocean acidification and feedback loops lock in turf algal systems
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-turf-wars-ocean-acidification-feedback.html

➤ Ocean 'dead zones' a growing disaster for fish
https://phys.org/news/2015-04-ocean-dead-zones-disaster-fish.html

➤ Antarctic Peninsula warming up due to heat in Tasman Sea
https://phys.org/news/2021-03-antarctic-peninsula-due-tasman-sea.html

Arctic warming three times faster than the planet, report warns
“In less than half a century, from 1971 to 2019, the Arctic's average annual temperature rose by 3.1C, compared to 1C for the planet as a whole.”
https://phys.org/news/2021-05-arctic-faster-planet.html

Back to Top


🏦 Political Science — Sociology — Evolutionary Anthropology - Ethnobiology

❝We learn from history that we do not learn from history❞
❝Truth is found neither in the thesis nor the antithesis, but in an emergent synthesis which reconciles the two.❞
❝To be aware of limitations is already to be beyond them.❞
❝Evil resides in the very gaze which perceives Evil all around itself.❞
❝What is rational is actual and what is actual is rational❞
❝People who are too fastidious towards the finite never reach actuality, but linger in abstraction, and their light dies away.❞
❝It is because the method of physics does not satisfy the comprehension that we have to go on further.❞
❝Animals are in possession of themselves; their soul is in possession of their body. But they have no right to their life, because they do not will it.❞
❝Mere goodness can achieve little against the power of nature.❞
❝Philosophy is the history of philosophy.❞
❝…if the fear of falling into error is the source of a mistrust in Science, which in the absence of any such misgivings gets on with the work itself and actually does know, it is difficult to see why, conversely, a mistrust should not be placed in this mistrust, and why we should not be concerned that this fear of erring is itself the very error.❞
—Georg Hegel 🍎(1770—1831) Philosopher of Aesthetics, Ontology and Politics


Ancient societies collapsed when leaders ignored the social contract
https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2020/10/16/
Ancient-societies-collapsed-when-leaders-ignored-the-social-contract/3521602861264/

“Yet, surprisingly, we also found that states with stronger commitments to good government were no more enduring than autocratic polities and, in fact, were more vulnerable to what we define as a "major" collapse pattern.”

Moral Collapse and State Failure: A View From the Past
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpos.2020.568704/full

Study: Left-wing authoritarians share key psychological traits with far right
Authoritarians have a predisposition for liking sameness and opposing differences among people in their environment, Costello says. They are submissive to people they perceive as authority figures, they are dominant and aggressive towards people they disagree with, and they are careful to obey what they consider the norms for their respective groups.
https://phys.org/news/2021-09-left-wing-authoritarians-key-psychological-traits.html

Using social values for profit cheapens them, a new study cautions
https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/when-authoritarians-get-free-pass-activists-pay-price/

When authoritarians get a free pass, activists pay the price
https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/when-authoritarians-get-free-pass-activists-pay-price/

Ignorance Does Not Lead to Freedom
https://www.counterpunch.org/2021/05/03/ignorance-does-not-lead-to-freedom/

The Beautiful and the Good (Perspective on the history of Western Civilization)
https://www.counterpunch.org/2021/10/22/the-beautiful-and-the-good/

⚫ Socioeconomics
pSocioeconomics

⚫ Technocracy
pTechnocracy

⚫ Algocracy
pGovernment_by_algorithm


Aphorisms, Axioms and Corollaries
“Aphorisms are distinct from axioms: aphorisms generally originate from experience and custom, whereas axioms are self-evident truths and therefore require no additional proof. Aphorisms have been especially used in subjects to which no methodical or scientific treatment was originally applied, such as agriculture, medicine, jurisprudence and politics.
An axiom, postulate or assumption is a statement that is taken to be true. The term has subtle differences in definition when used in the context of different fields of study. As defined in classic philosophy, an axiom is a statement that is so evident or well-established, that it is accepted without controversy or question. As used in modern logic, an axiom is a premise or starting point for reasoning.
A corollary, in mathematics and logic, is a theorem of less importance which can be readily deduced from a previous, more notable statement. A corollary could for instance be a proposition which is incidentally proved while proving another proposition, while it could also be used more casually to refer to something which naturally or incidentally accompanies something else.” —wikipedia

❝As political and economic freedom diminishes, sexual freedom tends compensating to increase. And the dictator (unless he needs cannon fodder and families with which to colonize empty or conquered territories) will do well to encourage that freedom.❞
—Aldous Huxley 🍎 (1894—1963) Writer and Philosopher

❝Power is in tearing human minds to pieces and putting them together again in new shapes of your own choosing.❞
—George Orwell 🍎(1903—1950) Novelist, Essayist and Journalist.

❝Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men…❞
—John Dalberg-Acton 🍎(1834—1902) Historian, Politician and Writer

Symbolic interactionism

“Symbolic interactionism is a sociological theory that develops from practical considerations and alludes to people's particular utilization of dialect to make images and normal implications, for deduction and correspondence with others. In other words, it is a frame of reference to better understand how individuals interact with one another to create symbolic worlds, and in return, how these worlds shape individual behaviors.” —wikipedia

Pragmatism

“Pragmatism is the pursuit of practical knowledge that is immediately useful in explaining or predicting the world. This can be contrasted with with skepticism, whereby an indiviudal is hesistent to accept anything as true without extensive evidence. Pragmatists are interested in the immediate tangible results of knowledge. As such, they don't necessarily align to either realism or optimism. A Pragmatist may view realists as overthinkers and optimists as too detached from immediate concerns.” —simplicable.com

Dialectical Materialism

“Dialectical materialism is an aspect of the broader subject of materialism, which asserts the primacy of the material world: in short, matter precedes thought. Materialism is a realist philosophy of science.” —wikipedia

Anachronism

“Anachronism is a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of persons, events, objects, language terms and customs from different time periods. The most common type of anachronism is an object misplaced in time, but it may be a verbal expression, a technology, a philosophical idea, a musical style, a material, a plant or animal, a custom, or anything else associated with a particular period that is placed outside its proper temporal domain.” —wikipedia

Utilitarianism

“Utilitarianism is a family of normative ethical theories that prescribe actions that maximize happiness and well-being for all affected individuals. Although different varieties of utilitarianism admit different characterizations, the basic idea behind all of them is to in some sense maximize utility, which is often defined in terms of well-being or related concepts.” —wikipedia

Demagogue
“Demagogues have appeared in democracies since ancient Athens. They exploit a fundamental weakness in democracy: because ultimate power is held by the people, it is possible for the people to give that power to someone who appeals to the lowest common denominator of a large segment of the population. Demagogues have usually advocated immediate, forceful action to address a crisis while accusing moderate and thoughtful opponents of weakness or disloyalty. Many demagogues elected to high executive office have unraveled constitutional limits on executive power and tried to convert their democracy into a dictatorship, sometimes successfully.” —wikipedia
pDemagogue


❝Consider the practical effects of the objects of your conception. Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object❞
❝Generality is, indeed, an indispensable ingredient of reality; for mere individual existence or actuality without any regularity whatever is a nullity. Chaos is pure nothing.❞
❝Mathematics is distinguished from all other sciences except only ethics, in standing in no need of ethics.❞
❝If man were immortal he could be perfectly sure of seeing the day when everything in which he had trusted should betray his trust.❞
❝Uniformities are precisely the sort of facts that need to be accounted for. Law is par excellence the thing that wants a reason. Now the only possible way of accounting for the laws of nature, and for uniformity in general, is to suppose them results of evolution.❞
❝Every man is fully satisfied that there is such a thing as truth, or he would not ask any question.❞
❝It is a common observation that those who dwell continually upon their expectations are apt to become oblivious to the requirements of their actual situation.❞
❝It is… easy to be certain. One has only to be sufficiently vague.❞
❝It is not knowing, but the love of learning, that characterizes the scientific man.❞
❝Upon this first, and in one sense this sole, rule of reason, that in order to learn you must desire to learn, and in so desiring not be satisfied with what you already incline to think, there follows one corollary which itself deserves to be inscribed upon every wall of the city of philosophy: Do not block the way of inquiry.❞
—Charles Sanders Peirce 🍎(1839—1914) Philosopher, Logician and Mathematician

Back to Top


Meritocracy, Plutocracy, Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Nepotism

“In rhetoric, the demonstration of one's merit regarding mastery of a particular subject is an essential task most directly related to the Aristotelian term Ethos. The equivalent Aristotelian conception of meritocracy is based upon aristocratic or oligarchic structures, rather than in the context of the modern state.” —wikipedia

What many people believe to be ethnocentrism, classism and/or sexism is more often attributable to either or both judgment of merit and closeness of kin ( nepotism). Meritocracy is yet another form of tyranny of a majority or minority. Existential crisis becomes as much Identity crisis as individuals struggle to 'fit in' somewhere. Identity politics then supercedes rational and moral processing of free human individuals in democratic civil-social order.

Hegemony “is the political, economic, and military predominance of one state over other states. In Ancient Greece (8th c. BC – AD 6th c.), hegemony denoted the politico-military dominance of the hegemon city-state over other city-states. In the 19th century, hegemony denoted the social or cultural predominance or ascendancy; predominance by one group within a society or milieu and a group or regime which exerts undue influence within a society. In cultural imperialism, the leader state dictates the internal politics and the societal character of the subordinate states that constitute the hegemonic sphere of influence, either by an internal, sponsored government or by an external, installed government. The term hegemonism denoted the geopolitical and the cultural predominance of one country over other countries, e.g. the hegemony of the Great Powers established with European colonialism in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In Marxist philosophy, Antonio Gramsci defined cultural hegemony as the ruling class's manipulation of the value system and mores of a society, so that the ruling class perspective is the world view of society; thus, in the relations among the social classes of a society, the term hegemony describes the cultural dominance of a ruling class, which compels the subordination of the other social classes.” —wikipedia
pHegemony

Autonomy “In developmental psychology and moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, uncoerced decision. Autonomous organizations or institutions are independent or self-governing. … Autonomy is a key concept that has a broad impact on different fields of philosophy. In metaphysical philosophy, the concept of autonomy is referenced in discussions about free will, fatalism, determinism, and agency. In moral philosophy, autonomy refers to subjecting oneself to objective moral law.” —wikipedia
pAutonomy

Kleptocracy “A government whose corrupt leaders (kleptocrats) use political power to appropriate the wealth of the people and land they govern, typically by embezzling or misappropriating government funds at the expense of the wider population.” —wikipedia
pKleptocracy


Dogmatic people seek less information even when uncertain
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/11/201120113904.htm

MetaphorSimilieAnalogyHyperboleAllegoryParableRhetoric


True wisdom is less presuming than folly. The wise man doubteth often, and changeth his mind; the fool is obstinate, and doubteth not; he knoweth all things but his own ignorance.
Akhenaten 14th Century BCE

All things share the same breath - the beast, the tree, the man… the air shares its spirit with all the life it supports. | Man does not weave this web of life. He is merely a strand of it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself.
Chief Seathl (1786 – 1866)


The principle of Sustainable Development proposed to address the Malthusian Trap is a cognitive structure with no affective or behavioral reciprocative. Economic and political theories are ideologies in practice requiring social hierarchy and conformity to operate, and therefore collapsing into conflict. Civilization is collapsing under the overload of its industrial and ideological factions; the modern human regresses to ancient ( totalitarian) and primitive (warfare) conditions.

Functionalism, Structuralism, Relativism, Nature vs. Nurture

❝People think about the world in terms of binary opposites—such as high and low, inside and outside, person and animal, life and death—and that every culture can be understood in terms of these opposites. — The process of visual perception makes use of binary oppositions. — Structures are universal; their realization is culturally specific.❞
❝Objects are what matter. Only they carry the evidence that throughout the centuries something really happened among human beings.❞
❝Civilization has ceased to be that delicate flower which was preserved and painstakingly cultivated in one or two sheltered areas of a soil rich in wild species … Mankind has opted for monoculture; it is in the process of creating a mass civilization, as beetroot is grown in the mass. Henceforth, man's daily bill of fare will consist only of this one item.❞
—Claude Lévi-Strauss 🍎(1908—2009) Anthropologist and Ethnologist

Behavioral Modernity
pBehavioral_modernity

Ethnobiology
pEthnobiology


🗽 On Liberty

❝He who knows only his own side of the case knows little of that.❞
❝In all intellectual debates, both sides tend to be correct in what they affirm, and wrong in what they deny.❞
❝The despotism of custom is everywhere the standing hindrance to human advancement.❞
❝The only part of the conduct of any one, for which he is amenable to society, is that which concerns others. In the part which merely concerns himself, his independence is, of right, absolute. Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign.❞
❝If all mankind minus one were of one opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind.❞
—John Stuart Mill 🍎(1806—1873) Philosopher and Political Economist

“I have no reason to suppose that he, who would take away my Liberty, would not when he had me in his Power, take away everything else.”
—John Locke (Philosopher and Physician)


One man with courage is a majority

—Thomas Jefferson (3rd President of the United States)

Back to Top


🔮 Einstein's Letter on relation of magnetic sense in bird's and bees to structure in Physics

Magnetic effect in species collectivism, mating and migration

Magnetoreception “The homing pigeon can return to its home using its ability to sense the Earth's magnetic field and other cues to orient itself. Magnetoreception is a sense which allows an organism to detect a magnetic field to perceive direction, altitude or location. This sensory modality is used by a range of animals for orientation and navigation, and as a method for animals to develop regional maps. In navigation, magnetoreception deals with the detection of the Earth's magnetic field. Magnetoreception is present in bacteria, arthropods, molluscs, and members of all major taxonomic groups of vertebrates. Humans are not thought to have a magnetic sense, but there is a protein (a cryptochrome) in the eye which could serve this function.” —wikipedia

➤ Physicists discover new magnetoelectric effect
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200914112159.htm

➤ Magnetic pulses alter salmon's orientation, suggesting navigation via magnetite in tissue
❝Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that magnetoreceptors are based on magnetite crystals.❞
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/05/200504101624.htm

❝Nature is our kindest friend and best critic in experimental science if we only allow her intimations to fall unbiased on our minds.❞

❝I happen to have discovered a direct relation between magnetism and light, also electricity and light, and the field it opens is so large and I think rich.❞
❝When the contrary magnetic poles were on the same side, there was an effect produced on the polarized ray, and thus magnetic force and light were proved to have relation to each other.❞
❝I cannot conceive curved lines of force without the conditions of a physical existence in that intermediate space.❞
❝A man in twenty-four hours converts as much as seven ounces of carbon into carbonic acid; a milch cow will convert seventy ounces, and a horse seventy-nine ounces, solely by the act of respiration. That is, the horse in twenty-four hours burns seventy-nine ounces of charcoal, or carbon, in his organs of respiration to supply his natural warmth in that time …, not in a free state, but in a state of combination.❞
❝If the term education may be understood in so large a sense as to include all that belongs to the improvement of the mind, either by the acquisition of the knowledge of others or by increase of it through its own exertions, we learn by them what is the kind of education science offers to man. It teaches us to be neglectful of nothing - not to despise the small beginnings, for they precede of necessity all great things in the knowledge of science, either pure or applied.❞
❝I propose to distinguish these bodies by calling those anions which go to the anode of the decomposing body; and those passing to the cathode, cations; and when I have occasion to speak of these together, I shall call them ions.❞
—Michael Faraday 🍎(1791—1867) Chemist and Physicist

“It was by Faraday's research on the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the basis for the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics. Faraday also established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena. He similarly discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction and diamagnetism, and the laws of electrolysis. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became practical for use in technology.” —wikipedia


➤ Satellites and spacecraft malfunction as Earth's magnetic field mysteriously weakens
Earth's magnetic field, which is vital to protecting life on our planet from solar radiation, is mysteriously weakening.
https://news.sky.com/story/earths-magnetic-field-which-protects-us-from-solar-radiation-is-mysteriously-weakening-11992022

➤ Earth’s magnetic field is acting up and geologists don’t know why
https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00007-1

“A geomagnetic reversal is a change in a planet's magnetic field such that the positions of magnetic north and magnetic south are interchanged. The magnetic field of the Earth, and of other planets that have magnetic fields, is generated by dynamo action in which convection of molten iron in the planetary core generates electric currents which in turn give rise to magnetic fields.” —wikipedia


Magnetohydrodynamics — Earth's Liquid Interior and Surface

“Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD; also magneto-fluid dynamics or hydro­magnetics) is the study of the magnetic properties and behaviour of electrically conducting fluids. Examples of such magneto­fluids include plasmas, liquid metals, salt water, and electrolytes. The word 'magneto­hydro­dynamics' is derived from magneto- meaning magnetic field, hydro- meaning water, and dynamics meaning movement. The field of MHD was initiated by Hannes Alfvén.” —wikipedia

❝We should remember that there was once a discipline called natural philosophy. Unfortunately, this discipline seems not to exist today. It has been renamed science, but science of today is in danger of losing much of the natural philosophy aspect.❞
❝In order to understand the phenomena in a certain plasma region, it is necessary to map not only the magnetic but also the electric field and the electric currents. Space is filled with a network of currents which transfer energy and momentum over large or very large distances. The currents often pinch to filamentary or surface currents. The latter are likely to give space, as also interstellar and intergalactic space, a cellular structure.❞
—Hannes Alfvén 🍎 (1908—1995) Electrical Engineer and Plasma Physicist


Cytoplasm — The Cell's Inner Ocean and Hydrostatic Pressure

“In cell biology, the cytoplasm is all of the material within a cell, enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the cell nucleus. The material inside the nucleus and contained within the nuclear membrane is termed the nucleoplasm. The main components of the cytoplasm are cytosol (a gel-like substance), the organelles (the cell's internal sub-structures), and various cytoplasmic inclusions. The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless.” —wikipedia

Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure that is exerted by a fluid at equilibrium at a given point within the fluid, due to the force of gravity.

Electrostatic pressure is an electrostatic force exerted per unit area when two opposite charged particles exert a force on each other.

Inverse-square law
“Any scientific law stating that a specified physical quantity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity. The fundamental cause for this can be understood as geometric dilution corresponding to point-source radiation into three-dimensional space.

Coulomb's law: The force of attraction or repulsion between two electrically charged particles, in addition to being directly proportional to the product of the electric charges, is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them; this is known as Coulomb's law.” —wikipedia
pInverse-square_law

Back to Top


🎓 The Vacuum Decay

False Vacuum Decay
Existential threat: If our universe is in a false vacuum state rather than a true vacuum state, then the decay from the less stable false vacuum to the more stable true vacuum (called false vacuum decay) could have dramatic consequences. The effects could range from complete cessation of existing fundamental forces, elementary particles and structures comprising them, to subtle change in some cosmological parameters, mostly depending on potential difference between true and false vacuum. Some false vacuum decay scenarios are compatible with survival of structures like galaxies and stars or even biological life while others involve the full destruction of baryonic matter or even immediate gravitational collapse of the universe, …
pFalse_vacuum_decay


➤ Towards quantum simulation of false vacuum decay
https://phys.org/news/2022-01-quantum-simulation-false-vacuum.html


Gravity is weak across distant/less massive objects and strong across near/more massive objects. It relates to the locality differential in quantum mechanics wherein local reality and distant reality may diverge from a common reference and be intergral with wave function collapse. The observation of the collapse at the moment of measure may be considered a quantum parallax effect.

Gravitational waves likely emit in a spectral variation, from high to low energy, even possibly at differing velocities depending on mass-compression, heat and magnetism, similar in structure to the electromagnetic spectrum. This idea combines gravitation and electromagnetism into where the inner nuclear force(s) and subatomic particles may also be integrated into a unified model. Inertia is more-so what seems the actual 'constant' and does relate directly to the 'constant of light' — light as a constant inertial momentum.

multiverse_model_multiple_bubbles.jpg
(Fig. 71) multiverse_model_
multiple_bubbles.jpg

If the vacuum bubble nucleation theory is accurate to the universe being a false vacuum, then it may decay to a true vacuum and re-nucleate over the existing cosmic structure. A torus-shaped universe with polar terminals could fit a new model in which the vacuum oscillates between true and false, and more toward the steady-state model. If a false vacuum then a starting energy input is in the lock of the vacuum as in potential energy, or its in spin control with a true vacuum outside.

The False Techno Future and the Bioevolutionary Future

false_futurism_incan_mayan_peru.jpg
(Fig. 72) false_futurism_
incan_mayan_peru.jpg

Humans probably would have achieved a Civilization Type 1 ( Kardashev) beginning about 2300 years ago. By the time of da Vinci humans would have been constructing his engineering plans in his time. Nearly 8 billion humans today are stranded where they would otherwise be achieving a Civilization Type 2. Nature disabled most instinct and rendered the human infant entirely defenseless. An animal simply driven by fear and instinct is no more than a robot or a slave. As is referred to God making man in his own image; Nature makes evolution of life in her own image.

The differential of power in the equation between simian humans and technologically advanced humans would be about 2 billion × 50 megaton thermonuclear detonations per second —equivalent to solar energy output on its surface. 50 megatons is the limit of engineering atomic devices today. So all that differential of power exists somewhere in the fabric of theoretical bioevolution. It is possible for the sun to output sufficient energy in one blast that could kill all life on Earth or rattle the tectonic plates to a series of earthquakes that would knock down civilization.

Back to Top


Civilization Type Zero: No Control of Planet System

monkeys_in_trees.jpg
(Fig. 73) monkeys_in_trees.jpg

The human is about 98.6% primate reconstructing its jungle environment — a different kind of evolution attempting to create an artificial ecosystem by devouring and destroying the natural ecosystem, and then convincing itself it is a highly 'evolved' being. Carl Sagan said several decades ago that humanity was on the verge of a Type 1 Civilization, but farther from it as the planet increasingly is changing beyond human control,

human_evolution.jpg
(Fig. 74) human_evolution.jpg
Model: Martina Dimitrova

We are the highest achievement reached so far by the great constructors of evolution. We are their 'latest' but certainly not their last word
❝All living beings have received their weapons through the same process of evolution that moulded their impulses and inhibitions; for the structural plan of the body and the system of behaviour of a species are parts of the same whole…❞
❝…he who has seen the intimate beauty of nature cannot tear himself away from it again. He must become either a poet or a naturalist and, if his eyes are keen and his powers of observation sharp enough, he may well become both.❞
❝I have found the missing link between the higher ape and civilized man: It is we.❞
❝Historians will have to face the fact that natural selection determined the evolution of cultures in the same manner as it did that of species.❞
❝All the advantages that man has gained from his ever-deepening understanding of the natural world that surrounds him, his technological, chemical and medical progress, all of which should seem to alleviate human suffering… tends instead to favor humanity's destruction.❞
—Konrad Lorenz 🍎 (1903-1989) Zoologist, Ethologist, Evolutionary Biologist


Graecopithecus freybergi: Oldest Hominin Lived in Europe, not Africa
http://www.sci-news.com/othersciences/
anthropology/graecopithecus-freybergi-hominin-04888.html

Graecopithecus
Graecopithecus is a hominid originally identified by a single mandible found in Nikiti, Greece in 1944. Since then, analysis of tooth specimens, dated to 7.2 million years ago, has led to suggestions that Graecopithecus may have been the oldest possible direct ancestor of humans excluding the chimpanzee lineage, or alternatively a possible last common ancestor of both humans and chimpanzees, though other scientists are skeptical of these claims. … Graecopithecus would be the oldest known representative of the human lineage after the human-chimpanzee split, in 19th-century terminology, the missing link between human and non-human primates. pGraecopithecus

➤ Genes for Face Shape Identified
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-genes.html

➤ Researchers Sequence Mitochondrial Genome of 80,000-Year-Old European Neanderthal
http://www.sci-news.com/genetics/
stajnia-cave-Neanderthal-mitochondrial-genome-08830.html

➤ Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals Used Sophisticated Tool-Making Techniques, Researchers Say
http://www.sci-news.com/archaeology/
middle-paleolithic-neanderthals-tool-making-techniques-10047.html


Planet Changes Beyond Human Control

➤ Canada's last intact ice shelf collapses due to warming
https://phys.org/news/2020-08-canada-intact-ice-shelf-collapses.html

➤ Brunt Ice Shelf in Antarctica calves
https://www.bas.ac.uk/media-post/brunt-ice-shelf-in-antarctica-calves/

➤ Africa is splitting in two – here is why
https://theconversation.com/africa-is-splitting-in-two-here-is-why-94056


Integrative/ Quantitative biology is to the science of life what cosmology is to the physical sciences.

Integrative Biology focuses on integration across biological levels, with the organism as a center point and moving up (populations, communities, ecosystems) and down (physiology, cell, genome) Advantage: option/flexibility to expand into different biological realms.” —wikipedia

Quantitative biology is an umbrella term encompassing the use of mathematical, statistical or computational techniques to study life and living organisms. The central theme and goal of quantitative biology is the creation of predictive models based on fundamental principles governing living systems.”
—wikipedia

Cosmology is a branch of astronomy concerned with the studies of the origin and evolution of the universe, from the Big Bang to today and on into the future. It is the scientific study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.” —wikipedia

Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait. Behaviourism as a term also describes the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually referring to measured responses to stimuli or to trained behavioural responses in a laboratory context, without a particular emphasis on evolutionary adaptivity. Throughout history, different naturalists have studied aspects of animal behaviour. Ethology has its scientific roots in the work of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and of American and German ornithologists of the late 19th and early 20th century.” —wikipedia

Ethology
pEthology

Back to Top


Civilization Type 3

interstellar_space_travel.png
(Fig. 75) interstellar_space_travel.png

Likely no singular solar system can develop spacefaring and interstellar communication technology alone. At this point technosignature contact is probably required, that is, two distant civilizations evolve to Type 3 at the same time by cooperating. At this point, the lower primates have long gone extinct and their world of garbage has been tectonically subducted and burned in the magma flow under the crust. How far into the future may be irrelevant because at type 2, time may be subducted into the crystal flow of nanoparticles.


From Stone Age chips to microchips: How tiny tools may have made us human
The technology of miniaturization set hominins apart from other primates
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/03/190312123733.htm


Atomic Level Engineering to One Billionth of a Meter

  • Nanometer
  • Nanography
  • Nanoparticle
  • Nanocrystal
  • Nanofluid
  • Magnetic Nanoparticles
  • Nanocircuits

Astronomy/Light, Sound/Music, and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Naturally structured spacial, physical orientation and depth perception responds to articulated (abstracted) presentation as consistent with actual experience of materially objective reality. Humans are natural physicists just by the fact of the complexity of processing their brains have evolved to do in mechanical operation of their physical body. The human body is a masterpiece of natural engineering.

Audio-Visual Offset, Parallel and Multiplexed Synchronization/ Asynchronization in the:
Neocortex  💭

The neocortex, also called the neopallium, isocortex, or the six-layered cortex, is a set of layers of the mammalian cerebral cortex involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.” —wikipedia.


Light travels a lot faster than sound so the brain has to compensate for the difference in assembling coherent audio-visual models of experiences. As with thunder and lightning the brain naturally understands the offset between the flash of light and the rumbling sound. Light and sound frequencies build a picture in the brain of what objects are approaching or receding, nearer or farther (aerial perspective) and what is the relative position of self in the dynamics around the body.


Quantum Dots

Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor particles a few nanometres in size, having optical and electronic properties that differ from larger particles due to quantum mechanics. They are a central topic in nanotechnology. When the quantum dots are illuminated by UV light, an electron in the quantum dot can be excited to a state of higher energy. In the case of a semiconducting quantum dot, this process corresponds to the transition of an electron from the valence band to the conductance band. The excited electron can drop back into the valence band releasing its energy by the emission of light ( Photoluminescence). The color of that light depends on the energy difference between the conductance band and the valence band.” —wikipedia.

“In the language of materials science, nanoscale semiconductor materials tightly confine either electrons or electron holes. Quantum dots are sometimes referred to as artificial atoms, emphasizing their singularity, having bound, discrete electronic states, like naturally occurring atoms or molecules. It was shown that the electronic wave functions in quantum dots resemble the ones in real atoms. By coupling two or more such quantum dots an artificial molecule can be made, exhibiting hybridization even at room temperature.” —wikipedia.

Decades of research bring quantum dots to brink of widespread use
https://phys.org/news/2021-08-decades-quantum-dots-brink-widespread.html

Colloidal Nanoparticles
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/materials-science/colloidal-nanoparticles

The Micron μm

“The micrometer, also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equalling 1×10−6 metre; that is, one millionth of a metre (or one thousandth of a millimetre, 0.001 mm, or about 0.000039 inch). The next smallest common SI unit is the nanometre, equivalent to one one-thousandth of a micrometre, or one billionth of a metre (0.000000001 m). The micrometre is a common unit of measurement for wavelengths of infrared radiation as well as sizes of biological cells and bacteria, and for grading wool by the diameter of the fibres. The width of a single human hair ranges from approximately 20 to 200 μm. The longest human chromosome is approximately 10 μm in length.” —wikipedia

Back to Top


The Neocortex: Earth's Masterpiece of Processing Power
Tonal receptor divisions of the auditory system
🎧 ============================================
Tonal levels of the music staff
🎼 ============================================
6 cell layers of the Neocortex
👓 ============================================
Light receptor divisions of the visual system (cones and rods)
💡 ============================================
Divisions of the visual (color) spectrum in layer form
_______________________________________________________
Divisions of the entire electromagnetic spectrum (light waves)
_______________________________________________________
Divisions of the entire range of audio frequencies (sound waves)

The Neocortex processes incoming stimulus of sensory cells through layers of cells organizing and making sense of the information from the basic sensation (up to five senses) all the way to the abstract interpretation (an effective 6th sense).


Light used to detect quantum information stored in 100,000 nuclear quantum bits
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-quantum-nuclear-bits.html

Where did brains come from?
“Another informative brain/plant comparison can be made between the highly polarized cortex and trees. Pyramidal cells extend highly fractalized apical dendrites up into the cortical sheet while puncturing the white matter below with a deeply penetrating and purposively ramified axon. To understand why trees, nervous systems or individual neurons concentrate resources in certain regions within themselves and proliferate uniquely branched elaborations into different external environments, we need to identify the chemical partners and physical persuasions each seeks and responds to.” —phys.org
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-brains.html

Defining spatial topography of gene expression in six-layered human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-02-spatial-topography-gene-six-layered-human.html


We are just an advanced breed of monkeys on a minor planet of a very average star. But we can understand the universe. That makes us something very special. —Stephen Hawking

🐵 Monkey Selfie Copyright Dispute
pMonkey_selfie_copyright_dispute
🐵 The Infinite Monkey Theorem
pInfinite_monkey_theorem
🐵 Hundreth Monkey Effect
pHundredth_monkey_effect

The Primate Trinity and the Tripartite Brain

🐒 Chimps are highly social animals, care for their offspring for years and can live to be over 50. Chimpanzees are our closest cousins; we share about 98% of our genes.
https://www.worldwildlife.org/species/chimpanzee

🐒 Gorillas share 98.3% of their DNA with humans, making them our closest cousins after chimpanzees and bonobos. These charismatic, intelligent animals often surprise us with behaviors and emotions similar to human experience.
https://www.worldwildlife.org/species/gorilla

🐒 The name Orangutan means man of the forest in the Malay language. Orangutans are gardeners of the forest, playing a vital role in seed dispersal in their habitats.
https://www.worldwildlife.org/species/orangutan


Embodied Cognition
https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/embodied-cognition/

Philosophy of Mind

  • Dualism finds its entry into Western philosophy thanks to René Descartes in the 17th century. Substance dualists like Descartes argue that the mind is an independently existing substance, whereas property dualists maintain that the mind is a group of independent properties that emerge from and cannot be reduced to the brain, but that it is not a distinct substance.
  • Monism is the position that mind and body are ontologically indiscernible entities (not dependent substances). This view was first advocated in Western philosophy by Parmenides in the 5th century BCE and was later espoused by the 17th-century rationalist Baruch Spinoza. Physicalists argue that only entities postulated by physical theory exist, and that mental processes will eventually be explained in terms of these entities as physical theory continues to evolve.

pPhilosophy_of_mind
pTriune_brain


The Darkness in the Dark Matter of the Simian Human Brain

The aether or quintessence in ancient and classical philosophy is brought forward in dark matter and the fifth force theories. The idea of space having some kind of material fabric other than, or in different form of, gravity is similar to how one may sense their own brain as a fabric of neurons wherein information travels almost immediately. Quantum entanglement apparently travels a lot faster than light, and so it is either travelling through something or over something. The primate brain is aware of how things appear, and added self-and-other awareness in the human brain, generates a deception-counter-deception logic 'gate', cognitive dissonance and simian re-direction behavior, also causing in some, mental and personality disorders of delusion and authoritarian aggression — a belief in the superiority of their mind over external reality. There is no mind over matter, but mind is matter.

The human brain experiences the effect of entanglement in multiple dimensions yet neurons are a lot slower than light. The closer an object is to the observer the less time is dilated, and there is a time lapse between photons impacting the visual system and the brain processing the stimulus. Humans sense there is more going on in reality than what meets the eye, and connections between things often have seemingly unrelated, uncanny or coincidental associations.

Back to Top


 ❏ Visual System Specialization

➤ Single pixel vision in fish helps scientists understand how humans can spot tiny details
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/05/200529150656.htm

Evolution of the eyeball and visual processing system in vertebrates is founded in early fish, and from reptiles, a parallel evolution of birds and their visual system achieves an equivalence to mammals in complex function, and as specific to each for their body form and function, higher birds and mammals make the closest eye-contact sensing deeper into each other's sentient 'animal' state.

Several higher birds and higher mammals exhibit advanced maternal and paternal responses based in empathetic awareness of offspring, beginning with the mother's direct connection of empathy to offspring, the self and other awareness transferring to the father, generating a functional monogamous cognitive and behavioral ecology in the highest mammals and birds.

Quantum effects that can be observed with the naked eye, combining memory - such as the superposition of similar objects and events forward and backward in time, may be given a personal meaning such as an interpretation of 'synchronicity', but quantum mechanics is not personal, it is what it is regardless of whether there is an observer or not. An observer may be unaware, partially aware, or interpret quantum effects in a mystical-magical or egocentric way, or an observer may interpret according to known functions of quantum mechanics.


➤ Quantum Approaches to Consciousness
https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qt-consciousness/

⚫ Quantum foundations
pQuantum_foundations


 ❏ Vacuum Polarization and Tidal Disruption

“According to quantum field theory, the vacuum between interacting particles is not simply empty space. Rather, it contains short-lived virtual particle–antiparticle pairs (leptons or quarks and gluons). These short-lived pairs are called vacuum bubbles. It can be shown that they have no measurable impact on any process.” —wikipedia

“In most theoretical physics such as quantum field theory, the energy that a particle has as a result of changes that it itself causes in its environment defines self-energy Σ, and represents the contribution to the particle's energy, or effective mass, due to interactions between the particle and its environment. In electrostatics, the energy required to assemble the charge distribution takes the form of self-energy by bringing in the constituent charges from infinity, where the electric force goes to zero. In a condensed matter context relevant to electrons moving in a material, the self-energy represents the potential felt by the electron due to the surrounding medium's interactions with it. Since electrons repel each other the moving electron polarizes, or causes to displace the electrons in its vicinity and then changes the potential of the moving electron fields. These and other effects entail self-energy.” —wikipedia

Physicists Produce Matter and Antimatter from Photon Collisions
“German physicists Werner Heisenberg and Hans Heinrich Euler in 1936, and American physicist John Toll in the 1950s, predicted that a vacuum of empty space could be polarized by a powerful magnetic field and that such a polarized vacuum should deflect the paths of photons depending on photon polarization.”
http://www.sci-news.com/physics/breit-wheeler-process-09950.html

Wave Function ︵‿‿︵‿︵‿︵︵‿︵‿︵~

“A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system. The wave function is a complex-valued probability amplitude, and the probabilities for the possible results of measurements made on the system can be derived from it. The most common symbols for a wave function are the Greek letters ψ and Ψ (lower-case and capital psi, respectively). The wave function is a function of the degrees of freedom corresponding to some maximal set of commuting observables. Once such a representation is chosen, the wave function can be derived from the quantum state.” —wikipedia
pWave_function

Quantum collaboration gives new gravity to the mysteries of the universe
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-quantum-collaboration-gravity-mysteries-universe.html

waves_of_the_future.jpg
(Fig. 76) Dielectric waves_of_the_future.jpg

A mechanical wave such as a gravity wave is considered matter-dependent, and can only oscillate through matter, but electromagnetic waves can travel through a vacuum and are regarded as a varying electric field coupled with a varying magnetic field, at right angles to each other and to the direction of travel. A gravitational wave is a form of radiation of gravitational force and even is considered to have varying frequencies as in a spectrum. A stochastic background is a random gravitational-wave signal potentially detectable by gravitational wave detection experiments. Since the background is supposed to be random it is completely determined by its statistical properties such as mean, variance etc. A Gravitational Wave Background has been detected to what is evidently the 'Big Bang' which itself may be evidence of a 'burst gravitational wave', the epicenter of an accretion and disruption in a much larger vacuum. The universe then is itself another object in a larger field of objects wherein the physics is continuous.

“A tidal disruption event is an astronomical phenomenon that occurs when a star approaches sufficiently close to a supermassive black hole and is pulled apart by the black hole's tidal force, experiencing spaghettification. A portion of the star's mass can be captured into an accretion disk around the black hole, resulting in a temporary flare of electromagnetic radiation as matter in the disk is consumed by the black hole. According to early papers, tidal disruption events should be an inevitable consequence of massive black holes' activity hidden in galaxy nuclei…” —wikipedia

Growing Block Universe

“According to the growing block universe theory of time, the past and present exist while the future does not. The present is an objective property, to be compared with a moving spotlight. By the passage of time more of the world comes into being; therefore, the block universe is said to be growing. The growth of the block is supposed to happen in the present, a very thin slice of spacetime, where more of spacetime is continually coming into being. The growing block view is an alternative to both eternalism (according to which past, present, and future all exist) and presentism (according to which only the present exists).” —wikipedia

  1. Events in our world are causally related.
  2. The causal relation is inherently asymmetrical. Effects depend on their causes in a way that causes do not depend on their effects.
  3. This asymmetry is only possible if a cause's effects are not real as of the time of their cause.
  4. Causes occur before their effects: X is earlier than Y means (roughly) that some event simultaneous with X causes some event simultaneous with Y.
  5. Our universe must, therefore, be a Growing Block.

⚫ Growing Block Universe
pGrowing_block_universe
⚫ Eternalism (philosophy of time)
pEternalism_(philosophy_of_time)

Topological waves may help in understanding plasma systems
https://phys.org/news/2020-05-topological-plasma.html


❝Pick a flower on Earth and you move the farthest star.❞
❝As time goes on, it becomes increasingly evident that the rules which the mathematician finds interesting are the same as those which Nature has chosen.❞
❝The underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of a large part of physics and the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble. It therefore becomes desirable that approximate practical methods of applying quantum mechanics should be developed, which can lead to an explanation of the main features of complex atomic systems without too much computation.❞
❝I consider that I understand an equation when I can predict the properties of its solutions, without actually solving it.❞
❝A physical law must possess mathematical beauty.❞
—Paul Dirac 🍎 (1902-1984) Theoretical Physicist.
pDirac_equation

“In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928. In its free form, or including electromagnetic interactions, it describes all spin-½ massive particles such as electrons and quarks for which parity is a symmetry. It is consistent with both the principles of quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity, and was the first theory to account fully for special relativity in the context of quantum mechanics. It was validated by accounting for the fine details of the hydrogen spectrum in a completely rigorous way. The equation also implied the existence of a new form of matter, antimatter, previously unsuspected and unobserved and which was experimentally confirmed several years later.” —wikipedia

Back to Top


🎓 Particle Physics in Standard and Quantum Resolution

“The quantum vacuum state is not truly empty but instead contains fleeting electromagnetic waves and particles that pop into and out of existence.” A background field exists before the foreground of particles and waves composing the universe. The dark matter/energy field is seemingly an intermediate field. In total, physics is exploring at least 2 levels of material-physical reality beyond the observable universe including standard model particles.” —wikipedia
pQuantum_electrodynamics

Quantum Vacuum State: “The quantum state with the lowest possible energy. Generally, it contains no physical particles. The word zero-point field is sometimes used as a synonym for the vacuum state of a quantized field which is completely individual.” —wikipedia
pQuantum_vacuum_state

Feynman Diagram of electron/positron annihilation

             γ       γ
 Time  ▲      \_____/
       |      /     \
       |     e−     e+
       |
        ——————▶
         Space       e− + e+ ➔ γ + γ

The electron and its antiparticle produce two photons and the photon is its own antiparticle. Light does not interact with dark matter/energy and there's a lot of missing antimatter. The photon is also essential to particle entanglement experiments. As protons are essential to the generation of atomic matter, photons are essential to wave functions and where they do not interact with mass they seem to have crossed a barrier where electromagnetism and gravity are static under nuclear force which is substrate to any atomic expression. The quarks define the nuclear force(s) and structure as the framework of the nucleon. No image has been generated of particles below the electron cloud or positron, but only tracings in particle accelerators or wave frequency tracings. Most of particle physics is represented as illustration from electromechanical detection.

math_tools.png
(Fig. 77) math_tools.png

Diagrametric Mathematical Tools

Cartesian Statistical Tool: The Bell Curve
Venn Probability tool: Set Theory

Nanotechnology

“The ideas and concepts behind nanoscience and nanotechnology started with a talk entitled 'There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom' by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) on December 29,1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used. In his talk, Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules. Over a decade later, in his explorations of ultraprecision machining, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology. It wasn't until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope that could "see" individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began.”
www.nano.gov/nanotech-101/what/definition

Buckyballs on DNA for harvesting light
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-buckyballs-dna-harvesting.html

Quantum efficiency - the ratio of the number of photoelectrons released in a photoelectric process to the number of radiation quanta absorbed.

 ❏ Placing Neutrinos in Time, Structure and State of Matter

the_neutrino_event.jpg
(Fig. 78) the_neutrino_event.jpg

“The very light masses of neutrinos might hold the key to solving the big questions that have challenged humanity for millennia.”

Big answers from tiny particles
https://phys.org/news/2020-09-big-tiny-particles.html

Strongest evidence yet that neutrinos explain how the universe exists
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/04/200415133657.htm

Search for sterile neutrinos: It's all about a bend in the curve
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/04/210412101918.htm

Ghostly particle caught in polar ice ushers in new way to look at the universe
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018/07/ghostly-particle-caught-polar-ice-ushers-new-way-look-universe

Skewed neutrino behavior could help explain matter’s dominion over antimatter
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/04/skewed-neutrino-behavior-could-help-explain-matter-s-dominion-over-antimatter

Physicists Detect Solar CNO Neutrinos for First Time
http://www.sci-news.com/physics/solar-cno-neutrinos-09094.html

As far as the neutrinos are concerned reality is a constant, and matter may be adjusted accordingly to sustain a constant reality. Neutrinos are a product of decay, the exhaust of particle hierarchy breakdown into lower energy and mass as in a quantum vacuum state. Entropy shifts from low to high and high to low in a quadratic equation function resolving in a steady state.

➤ “The IceCube Laboratory at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, in Antarctica, hosts the computers that collect raw data from the sensors buried in the ice below.”
https://icecube.wisc.edu/info/neutrinos

Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment
pDeep_Underground_Neutrino_Experiment

The primary science objectives of DUNE are:

  • A comprehensive investigation of neutrino oscillations to test CP violation in the lepton sector;
  • Determination the ordering of the neutrino masses;
  • Search for neutrinos beyond the currently known three (electron, muon, and tau—which morph into one another as they zip along at near–light speed);
  • Studies of supernovae and the formation of a neutron star or black hole;
  • Search for proton decay.

Back to Top


🌹 Solar Flower Power

       :                       ..,,..    ...,,..
      ,%,                .. ,#########::#########:,
      :#%%,           ,,:',####%%%%%%##:`::%%%%####,
     ,##%%%%,      ,##%% ,##%%%:::::''%' `::::%%####,
     %###%%;;,   ,###%%:,##%%:::''    '  . .`:::%%###,
    :####%%;;:: ,##%:' ,#%::''   .,,,..    . .`::%%%##,
    %####%;;::,##%:' ,##%''  ,%%########%     . `:::%%##,
    ######:::,##%:',####:  ,##%%:''     `%%,     .`::%%##,
    :#####%:'##%:',#####' ,###%' ,%%%%,%%,'%,     . ::%%###,,..
     #####%:,#%:'#######  %%:'%  %'  `%% %% %%,.     '::%%#######,
     `####%,#%:',####### ::' %   ' ,%%%%%%, ::%%.    . '::%%######
      `###'##%: ######## ,.   %%  %%,   ':: `:%%%  :  . .:::%%###'
      ,,::,###  %%%%%### ::  % %% '%%%,.::: .:%%%   #.  . ::%%%#'
,,,:::%%##:;#   `%%%%%## :% ,%, %   ':%%:'  #%%%' ,.:##.  ::%#'
::%%#####% %%:::  :::%%% `%%,'%%     ..,,%####' :%# `::##, ''
###%%::'###%::: .   `:::, `::,,%%%######%%'',::%##' ,:::%##
''''   ,####%:::. .  `::%,     '':%%::' .,::%%%#'   :::%%%##,
      :#%%'##%:::.  . . "%::,,.. ..,,,,::%%%###'  ,:%%%%####'
     ,###%%'###%:::: . . `::::::::::%%%#####'   ,::%####:'
     %###%%;'###%::::.   .`::%%%%%%%#####:'  ,,::%%##:'
     ####%;:;'####%:::::.   `:%######::'  ,,:::%%###
     %####;:;'######%%::::.           ,::::%%%####'
     `####%;:'`#########%%:::....,,:::%%%#######'
        ;#####;;'..;;:::#########::%%#########:"'
                       ~~~~``````''''~~~

A pheromone is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same or other species.

Aroma compound: Geranyl acetate
                        |
                    .   |
                        |
          \    *        |     *    .  /
            \        *  |  .        /
         .    \     ___---___     /    .  
                \.--         --./     
     ~-_    *  ./               \.   *   _-~
        ~-_   /                   \   _-~     *
   *       ~-/                     \-~        
     .      |                       |      .
         * |                         | *     
-----------|                         |-----------
  .        |                         |        .    
        *   |                       | *
           _-\                     /-_    *
     .  _-~ . \                   /   ~-_     
     _-~       `\               /'*      ~-_  
    ~           /`--___   ___--'\           ~
           *  /        ---     .  \   jgs
            /     *     |           \
          /             |   *         \
                     .  |        .
                        |
                        |

“It took us some time to realize that stellar winds can have the shape of rose petals” —Astronomer Leen Decin

                                                                  _______
                                                                LLLLLLLLLLL
                                                            __LLLLLLLLLLLLLL
                                                           LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
                                                         _LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
                                                        LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
                                                      _LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
                                                      LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
                                              L     _LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
                                             LL     LLLLLL~~~LLLLLLLLLLLLLL
                                            _L    _LLLLL      LLLLLLLLLLLLL
                                            L~    LLL~        LLLLLLLLLLLLL
                                           LL   _LLL        _LL   LLLLLLLL
                                          LL    LL~         ~~     ~LLLLLL
                                          L   _LLL_LLLL___         _LLLLLL
                                         LL  LLLLLLLLLLLLLL      LLLLLLLL
                                         L  LLLLLLLLLLLLLLL        LLLLLL
                                        LL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL        LLLLL~
                  LLLLLLLL_______       L _LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL     LLLLLLLL
                         ~~~~~~~LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL~       LLLLLL
                       ______________LLL  LLLLLLLLLLLLLL ______LLLLLLLLL_
                   LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL  LLLLLLLL~~LLLLLLL~~~~~~   ~LLLLLL
             ___LLLLLLLLLL __LLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLL____       _LLLLLL_
          LLLLLLLLLLL~~   LLLLLLLLLLLLLLL   LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL     ~~~LLLLL
      __LLLLLLLLLLL     _LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL_  LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL_       LLLLL
     LLLLLLLLLLL~       LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL   ~L ~~LLLLLLLLLLLLL      LLLLLL
   _LLLLLLLLLLLL       LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL_  LL      LLLLLLLLL   LLLLLLLLL
  LLLLLLLLLLLLL        LLLLLLLLLLLLL~LLLLLL~L   LL       ~~~~~       ~LLLLLL
 LLLLLLLLLLLLLLL__L    LLLLLLLLLLLL_LLLLLLL LL_  LL_            _     LLLLLL
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL~     ~LLLLLLLL~~LLLLLLLL   ~L  ~LLLL          ~L   LLLLLL~
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL               _LLLLLLLLLL    LL  LLLLLLL___     LLLLLLLLLL
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL              LL~LLLLLLLL~     LL  LLLLLLLLLLLL   LLLLLLL~
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL_  __L       _L  LLLLLLLL      LLL_ LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
 LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL        L~  LLLLLLLL      LLLLLLL~LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL~
  LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL___L_ LL   LLLLLLL       LLLL     LLLLLLLLLLLLLL
   ~~LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL     LLLLL~      LLLLL        ~~~~~~~~~
           LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL_ _   LLL       _LLLLL
               ~~~~~~LLLLLLLLLL~             LLLLLL
                         LLLLL              _LLLLLL
                         LLLLL    L     L   LLLLLLL
                          LLLLL__LL    _L__LLLLLLLL
                          LLLLLLLLLL  LLLLLLLLLLLL
                           LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
                            ~LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL~~
                               LLLLLLLLLLLLL
                                 ~~~~~~~~~

❝Pick a flower on Earth and you move the farthest star.❞
—Paul Dirac 🍎 (1902-1984)
Theoretical Physicist.
p
Butterfly_effect


                                        ▓▓                                      
                                      ▓▓  ▓▓                                    
                                    ▒▒░░  ░░▒▒                                  
                                    ▓▓      ▓▓                                  
                                  ▓▓░░      ░░▓▓                                
                                  ▓▓          ▓▓                                
                                ▓▓              ▓▓                              
                                ▓▓              ▓▓                              
                              ▓▓░░              ░░▓▓                            
                              ▓▓                  ▓▓                            
            ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓                      ▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓▓          
          ▓▓                                                          ▓▓        
            ▓▓                                                      ▓▓          
              ▓▓▓▓                                              ▓▓▓▓            
                  ▓▓                                          ▓▓                
                    ▓▓▓▓                                  ▓▓▓▓                  
                        ▓▓                              ▓▓                      
                          ▓▓                          ▓▓                        
                          ▓▓                          ▓▓                        
                        ▓▓                              ▓▓                      
                        ▓▓                              ▓▓                      
                      ▓▓                                  ▓▓                    
                      ▓▓                ▓▓                ▓▓                    
                    ▓▓                ▓▓  ▓▓                ▓▓                  
                    ▓▓            ▓▓▓▓      ▓▓▓▓            ▓▓                  
                    ▓▓          ▓▓              ▓▓          ▓▓                  
                  ▓▓        ▓▓▓▓                  ▓▓▓▓        ▓▓                
                  ▓▓      ▓▓                          ▓▓      ▓▓                
                  ▓▓    ▓▓                              ▓▓    ▓▓                
                    ▓▓▓▓                                  ▓▓▓▓                  
                                                                                

The stars die and radiate elements and ions, compounds, a variety of electromagnetic waves, some gravitational ripples, and neutrinos that tell a story to the beginning of matter and energy. Stars are the life of the universe.


➤ Between relativistic and classical wave regimes,

newly discovered memory effect alters the Doppler wave signature
https://phys.org/news/
2020-09-relativistic-classical-regimes-newly-memory.html

➤ If dark matter is a particle,
it should get inside red giant stars and change the way they behave
https://www.universetoday.com/147924/
if-dark-matter-is-a-particle-it-should-get-inside-red-giant-stars-and-change-the-way-they-behave/

➤ ALMA Sees Complex Stellar Winds around Red Giant Stars
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/
alma-complex-stellar-winds-red-giant-stars-08878.html

Back to Top


  • Big Bang Nucleosynthesis ~1 second to ~1 minute
  • Cosmic Neutrino Background (relic neutrinos)
  • CNB Neutrinos are non-relativistic
  • 380,000 years later the Cosmic Microwave Background
  • First stars and galaxies to 1 Bya (Billion years ago)
  • 13.8 Bya to Present Time (total volume of neutrinos)
  • Diffuse Neutrino Background
“Neutrinos are created by various radioactive decays; some of those processes include:”
  • beta decay of atomic nuclei or hadrons
  • natural nuclear reactions such as those that take place in the core of a star
  • artificial nuclear reactions in nuclear reactors, nuclear bombs, or particle accelerators
  • during a supernova
  • during the spin-down of a neutron star
  • when cosmic rays or accelerated particle beams strike atoms

To Many Worlds Interpretation

Parity Non-conservation

parity_nonconservation.png
(Fig. 79) parity_nonconservation.png
Many-worlds interpretation

“Although neutrinos were long believed to be massless, it is now known that there are three discrete neutrino masses; each neutrino flavor state is a linear combination of the three discrete mass eigenstates. From cosmological measurements, it has been calculated that the sum of the three neutrino masses must be less than one millionth that of the electron. A neutrino created in a specific flavor eigenstate is in an associated specific quantum superposition of all three mass eigenstates. This is possible because the three masses differ so little that they cannot be experimentally distinguished within any practical flight path, due to the uncertainty principle. Neutrino oscillation arises from mixing between the flavor and mass eigenstates of neutrinos.”
—wikipedia

W and Z Bosons: Parity Breaker Weak Force Carriers

Neutrinos ➔ weak nuclear ➔ quarks ➔ strong nuclear ➔ nucleons

W and Z Bosons       Large Wave
                       Mass  Electromagnetic
Parity                  Break/Interference        Parity Non-conservation
Linear inertial momentum      Time               Angular gravitational momentum                
weak nuclear              strong nuclear         composite nuclear - atomic matter nucleation

“The W and Z bosons are carrier particles that mediate the weak nuclear force, much as the photon is the carrier particle for the electromagnetic force. The weak interaction affects all the fermions of the Standard Model, as well as the Higgs boson; neutrinos interact only through gravity and the weak interaction. In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces. Elementary particles, whose interactions are described by a gauge theory, interact with each other by the exchange of gauge bosons—usually as virtual particles. The Standard Model of particle physics recognizes four kinds of gauge bosons: photons, which carry the electromagnetic interaction; W and Z bosons, which carry the weak interaction; and gluons, which carry the strong interaction” —wikipedia

Charge and Parity Symmetry violation and Supersymmetry

Wu experiment
“The Wu experiment was a particle and nuclear physics experiment conducted in 1956 by physicist Chien-Shiung Wu. The experiment's purpose was to establish whether or not conservation of parity (P-conservation), which was previously established in the electromagnetic and strong interactions, also applied to weak interactions. If P-conservation were true, a mirrored version of the world (where left is right and right is left) would behave as the mirror image of the current world. If P-conservation were violated, then it would be possible to distinguish between a mirrored version of the world and the mirror image of the current world. The experiment established that conservation of parity was violated (P-violation) by the weak interaction, providing a way to perationally define left and right without reference to the human body. This result was not expected by the physics community, which had previously regarded parity as a conserved quantity.” —wikipedia

“Although parity is conserved in electromagnetism, strong interactions and gravity, it is violated in weak interactions. The Standard Model incorporates parity violation by expressing the weak interaction as a chiral gauge interaction. Only the left-handed components of particles and right-handed components of antiparticles participate in charged weak interactions in the Standard Model. This implies that parity is not a symmetry of our universe, unless a hidden mirror sector exists in which parity is violated in the opposite way.” —wikipedia
pWu_experiment
pParity_(physics)


 The theories combine in quantum and standard physics to compare the models to themselves and experiment with how they match or don't. It is somewhat like the brain is testing its own reflection of its understanding, and in doing so, searching for resolutions to what is yet not understood of the structure of the universe. If all antimatter could exist equivalently to matter, then the only difference may be in energy level or orientation and spin ratio, or even no difference at all. Antimatter and matter could be combined into a different form of matter containing both as like protons and neutrons or electrons composing atomic elements. Down the sides of the particle hierarchy may be a symmetry that is one dimensional linear, or a set of perfect parallel lines, eliminating curvature being required to compose real physical space. Yet the universe is considered to be flat, and so was the Earth at one time.


➤ Triple threat: The first observation of three massive gauge bosons produced in proton-proton collisions
https://phys.org/news/2020-12-triple-threat-massive-gauge-bosons.html

➤ ATLAS finds evidence of three massive vector boson production
https://atlas.cern/updates/physics-briefing/evidence-three-massive-vector-boson-production

➤ LHCb sees new form of matter–antimatter asymmetry in strange beauty particles
https://home.cern/news/news/physics/lhcb-sees-new-form-matter-antimatter-asymmetry-strange-beauty-particles

Topological Insulators

➤ Topological mechanical metamaterials go beyond Newton's third law
https://phys.org/news/2020-11-topological-mechanical-metamaterials-newton-law.html

➤ Signatures of fractional electronic charge observed in topological insulators
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/06/200610102718.htm

The first topological acoustic transistor
Sound waves may pave the way for topological electronic transistors
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/01/220105111351.htm

Topological Insulator
pTopological_insulator


❝Mathematics is the natural language of theoretical physics. It is the irreplaceable instrument for the penetration of realms of physical phenomena far beyond the ordinary experience upon which conventional language is based.❞
❝Classical mechanics is a determinate theory. Knowledge of the state at a given time permits precise prediction of the result of measuring any property of the system. In contrast, quantum mechanics is only statistically determinate.❞
❝Time appears in quantum mechanics as a continuous parameter which represents an abstraction of the dynamical role of the measurement apparatus.❞
—Julian Schwinger 🍎(1918—1994) Theoretical Physicist


How much bigger is the unknown than the known is unknown.

➤ CMS measures Higgs boson’s mass with unprecedented precision
https://home.cern/news/news/physics/cms-measures-higgs-bosons-mass-unprecedented-precision

➤ 'Search of a lifetime' for supersymmetric particles at CERN
https://phys.org/news/2020-11-lifetime-supersymmetric-particles-cern.html

➤ CERN Physicists Find Evidence for Rare Decay of Higgs Boson
http://www.sci-news.com/physics/higgs-boson-dalitz-decay-09340.html


Kinematics and Relativistic Mass

“Kinematics is a subfield of physics, developed in classical mechanics, that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the forces that cause them to move. Kinematics, as a field of study, is often referred to as the 'geometry of motion' and is occasionally seen as a branch of mathematics. A kinematics problem begins by describing the geometry of the system and declaring the initial conditions of any known values of position, velocity and/or acceleration of points within the system. Then, using arguments from geometry, the position, velocity and acceleration of any unknown parts of the system can be determined. The study of how forces act on bodies falls within kinetics, not kinematics. For further details, see analytical dynamics. Kinematics is used in astrophysics to describe the motion of celestial bodies and collections of such bodies. In mechanical engineering, robotics, and biomechanics kinematics is used to describe the motion of systems composed of joined parts (multi-link systems) such as an engine, a robotic arm or the human skeleton.”
—wikipedia

Historically, there were three branches of classical mechanics:

  1. statics (the study of equilibrium and its relation to forces)
  2. kinetics (the study of motion and its relation to forces)
  3. kinematics (dealing with the implications of observed motions without regard for circumstances causing them)

From Newton to Einstein: Mass–energy Equivalence

“An object moves with different speeds in different frames of reference, depending on the motion of the observer. This implies the kinetic energy, in both Newtonian mechanics and relativity, is 'frame dependent', so that the amount of relativistic energy that an object is measured to have depends on the observer. The relativistic mass of an object is given by the relativistic energy divided by c2. Because the relativistic mass is exactly proportional to the relativistic energy, relativistic mass and relativistic energy are nearly synonymous; the only difference between them is the units. The rest mass or invariant mass of an object is defined as the mass an object has in its rest frame, when it is not moving with respect to the observer.” —wikipedia

“Physicists typically use the term mass, though experiments have shown an object's gravitational mass depends on its total energy and not just its rest mass. The rest mass is the same for all inertial frames, as it is independent of the motion of the observer, it is the smallest possible value of the relativistic mass of the object. Because of the attraction between components of a system, which results in potential energy, the rest mass is almost never additive; in general, the mass of an object is not the sum of the masses of its parts. The rest mass of an object is the total energy of all the parts, including kinetic energy, as observed from the center of momentum frame, and potential energy. The masses add up only if the constituents are at rest (as observed from the center of momentum frame) and do not attract or repel, so that they do not have any extra kinetic or potential energy. Massless particles are particles with no rest mass, and therefore have no intrinsic energy; their energy is due only to their momentum.” —wikipedia


“We already have a pretty good knowledge of the universe's mass-energy content, so if we can get a handle on its geometry, then we will be able to work out exactly what the fate of the universe will be.”
―Astrophysicist Priyamvada Natarajan

Back to Top


🎓 The Quantum Clockwork Fabricated Universe

 Quadratic Entropy  —    Directionality and Dipolarity

                      1. Positive entropy is one directional 
         |high           and never reverses direction.
         |            2. Negative entropy never reverses    
         |               direction but can change direction.
 ________|________    3. Directional change in negative entropy
 neg.    |    pos.       may include alignment with positive
         |               entropy which relocates positive entropy.
         |            4. Positive entropy never changes
         |low            direction so may never align with
                         negative entropy.



     high|   /time     Adding a 3rd Dimension,     
         |  /          Entropy is divided into time 
         | /           slices where its focal point
 ________|/________    may exist either high or low
 neg.   /|    pos.     positive or negative. And yet 
       / |             4th and 5th dimensions may be 
      /  |             added giving very high      
     /   |low          precision of prediction.
                       

Entropy predicts that certain processes are irreversible or impossible, aside from the requirement of not violating the conservation of energy, the latter being expressed in the first law of thermodynamics. Entropy is central to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that the entropy of isolated systems left to spontaneous evolution cannot decrease with time, as they always arrive at a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, where the entropy is highest.” —wikipedia

❝Heat can never pass from a colder to a warmer body without some other change, connected therewith, occurring at the same time.❞
❝In all cases where work is produced by heat, a quantity of heat proportional to the work done is expended; and inversely, by the expenditure of a like quantity of work, the same amount of heat may be produced.❞
❝The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium.❞
—Rudolf Clausius 🍎(1822—1888) Physicist and Mathematician
(It is generally believed that Rudolf Clausius chose the symbol S to denote entropy in honour of the French physicist Nicolas Sadi-Carnot.)

Spontaneous Process
“A process which occurs without any external input to the system. A more technical definition is the time-evolution of a system in which it releases free energy and it moves to a lower, more thermodynamically stable energy state (closer to thermodynamic equilibrium). The sign convention for free energy change follows the general convention for thermodynamic measurements, in which a release of free energy from the system corresponds to a negative change in the free energy of the system and a positive change in the free energy of the surroundings.” —wikipedia pSpontaneous_process

          ΔH ΔS
   enthalpy   entropy

℃〰️ Laws of Thermodynamics
pLaws_of_thermodynamics

  1. Thermal equilibrium forming a basis for the definition of temperature. It says that if two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
  2. When energy passes into or out of a system (as work, heat, or matter), the system's internal energy changes in accord with the law of conservation of energy. Equivalently, perpetual motion machines of the first kind (machines that produce work with no energy input) are impossible.
  3. Entropy of any isolated system always increases. Isolated systems spontaneously evolve towards thermal equilibrium—the state of maximum entropy of the system.
  4. A system's entropy approaches a constant value as the temperature approaches absolute zero. With the exception of non-crystalline solids (glasses) the entropy of a system at absolute zero is typically close to zero. The entropy of a pure crystalline substance (perfect order) at absolute zero temperature is zero.

℃〰️ History of Thermodynamics
pHistory_of_thermodynamics

❝The thermal agency by which mechanical effect may be obtained is the transference of heat from one body to another at a lower temperature.❞
❝Wherever there exists a difference of temperature... it is possible to have also the production of impelling power. ...All substances in nature can be employed for this purpose, all are susceptible of changes of volume, of successive contractions and dilatations, through the alternation of heat and cold.❞
❝Nature, in providing us with combustibles on all sides, has given us the power to produce, at all times and in all places, heat and the impelling power which is the result of it. To develop this power, to appropriate it to our uses, is the object of heat-engines.❞
—Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot 🍎(1796—1832) Mechanical Engineer and Physicist
(Reflections on the Motive Power of Heat 1824)
(Referred to as the Father of Thermodynamics)


🎡  Clockwork Universe

“In the history of science, the clockwork universe compares the universe to a mechanical clock. It continues ticking along, as a perfect machine, with its gears governed by the laws of physics, making every aspect of the machine predictable.” —wikipedia

The Vedas, the earliest texts on Indian philosophy and Hindu philosophy, dating back to the late 2nd millennium BC, describe ancient Hindu cosmology, in which the universe goes through repeated cycles of creation, destruction, and rebirth, with each cycle lasting 4,320,000 years. Ancient Greek philosophers, including Parmenides and Heraclitus, wrote essays on the nature of time.” —wikipedia

Philosophy of space and time
pPhilosophy_of_space_and_time


➤ New Measurements of Fine-Structure Constant Suggest Laws of Nature Not as Constant as Previously Thought
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/fine-structure-constant-08375.html
pFine-structure_constant
Dimensionless Physical Constant and Fundamental Physical Constant

closed_curved_universe.jpg
(Fig. 80) closed_curved_universe.jpg

There may exist an hyper-quantum boundary of a curved and closed universe with an infinite resolution of spacetime. As the solar system and galaxy rotate and orbit within, so too the universe is in a rotational momentum and may even be in an orbital in a larger space in a higher dimension or roll through continuous cycles.

➤ Paradox-Free Time Travel is Mathematically Possible: Study
http://www.sci-news.com/physics/paradox-free-time-travel-08890.html

🎡  Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

“In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, published by Johannes Kepler between 1609 and 1619, describe the orbits of planets around the Sun. The laws modified the heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus, replacing its circular orbits and epicycles with elliptical trajectories, and explaining how planetary velocities vary. The three laws state that:”

  1. The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci.
  2. A line segment joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.
  3. The square of a planet's orbital period is proportional to the cube of the length of the semi-major axis of its orbit.

“The elliptical orbits of planets were indicated by calculations of the orbit of Mars. From this, Kepler inferred that other bodies in the Solar System, including those farther away from the Sun, also have elliptical orbits. The second law helps to establish that when a planet is closer to the Sun, it travels faster. The third law expresses that the farther a planet is from the Sun, the slower its orbital speed, and vice versa. Isaac Newton showed in 1687 that relationships like Kepler's would apply in the Solar System to a good approximation, as a consequence of his own laws of motion and law of universal gravitation.” —wikipedia

Back to Top


Edge of the Universe: Quantum Biology
ant_human_colony.jpg
(Fig. 81) ant_human_
colony.jpg

The human being unknowingly and unwillingly participates in a fabricated reality, yet does have sense and free-will to apparently navigate and make decisions within a superdeterministically structured spacetime. Living things are aligned with negative/low entropy, and so one may survive against the greater action of positive/high entropy. Many humans align with positive/high entropy and also survive, but such survival derives from a predatory instinct in the simian omnivore. Behaviors exhibited by humans in their entire natural history, descending into the lower species they evolved from, are yet latent in programming and memory in their cells and brains, and in quantum mechanics is also memory connected in the larger field of time, often re-creating conditions inciting primitive behaviors. Combining quantum mechanics and natural selection one may consider themself either fortunate or misfortunate, but to the degree that randomness is not the essential engine of reality, a higher form of natural engineering is. The higher the entropy wave, the further down the crash.

Eusociality, “the highest level of organization of sociality, is defined by the following characteristics: cooperative brood care (including care of offspring from other individuals), overlapping generations within a colony of adults, and a division of labor into reproductive and non-reproductive groups. The division of labor creates specialized behavioral groups within an animal society which are sometimes referred to as 'castes'. Eusociality is distinguished from all other social systems because individuals of at least one caste usually lose the ability to perform at least one behavior characteristic of individuals in another caste. Eusociality exists in certain insects, crustaceans and mammals. It is mostly observed and studied in the Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps) and in Isoptera (termites).” —wikipedia

Existence of Conscious Intellect

⚫ The brain's visual window is an atomic structure looking at atomic structure.
⚫ The human brain knows a lot more than the human knowing its brain.
⚫ At some basic level, the symmetrical occurrences in nature harmonize with the lateral division of the brain and body.
⚫ The constant fluctuation between symmetry and asymmetry driven by apparent randomness generates a continuous branching tree of sets of mental picture frames in the association cortex energized by the thalamus.
⚫ The brain develops like rings of a tree; human consciousness is structured accordingly.
⚫ The human's cognitive and behavioral patterns are more often inconsistent with physiology and sensory-perception.


From the inside out: How the brain forms sensory memories
A new study identifies a region of the thalamus as a key source of signals encoding past experiences in the neocortex.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/11/201116092246.htm


warfare_population_increase.png
(Fig. 82) warfare_population_increase.png

One human may build a garden to grow food, another human may come along and pave it over to make a parking lot. The world becomes more industrialist and militarist, and more humans are on the verge of abject poverty with the Earth suffering severe conditions of ecological damage. The simian hierarchy determines human behavior within a super-deterministic spacetime; the universe is resilient in its timeline of reflecting a self-consistent continuity — facilitating a pattern of breeding, oppression, and tyranny that resolves in large scale social and environmental disaster.

Dominance Hierarchy
• Despite the benefits to being of a high rank in a hierarchal group, there are also costs which offset these benefits. The most common costs to high-ranking individuals are higher metabolic rates and higher levels of stress hormones.
• Several areas of the brain contribute to hierarchical behavior in animals. One of the areas that has been linked with this behavior is the prefrontal cortex, a region involved with decision making and social behavior. High social rank in a hierarchical group of mice has been associated with increased excitability in the medial prefrontal cortex of pyramidal neurons, the primary excitatory cell type of the brain.
pDominance_hierarchy

⚫ Hierarchy theory
pHierarchy_theory

Lifeboat ethics
pLifeboat_ethics

forest_fires_armed_conflicts.jpg
(Fig. 83) forest_fires_armed_conflicts.jpg

The Cycle of Abuse

Prosperity and excess reproduction ━▶ depression and poverty ━▶ militarization and warfare ━▶ prosperity and reproduction with increased population base and military tool-making. ━▶ increasingly more destructive warfare and damage to human society and environment ━▶

As human aggression generates more conditions of warming and melting, humans become more aggressive, adding more energy to ecological damage, cycling back around to more severe human aggression. Fire symbolizes power, and firepower is much of how primitive humans fended off carnivorous animals and possibly Neanderthals.

➤ A global wildfire dataset for the analysis of fire regimes and fire behaviour
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41597-019-0312-2

➤ Lake habitats are disappearing as the climate changes
https://phys.org/news/2021-06-lake-habitats-climate.html

➤ The burden of heat-related mortality attributable to recent human-induced climate change
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-021-01058-x


Dignity, Volition and Conscience

❝Why the dinosaurs died out is not known, but it is supposed to be because they had minute brains and devoted themselves to the growth of weapons of offense in the shape of numerous horns.❞
❝The megalomaniac differs from the narcissist by the fact that he wishes to be powerful rather than charming, and seeks to be feared rather than loved. To this type belong many lunatics and most of the great men of history.❞
❝If there were in the world today any large number of people who desired their own happiness more than they desired the unhappiness of others, we could have a paradise in a few years.❞
❝The infliction of cruelty with a good conscience is a delight to moralists. That is why they invented Hell.❞
❝The observer, when he seems to himself to be observing a stone, is really, if physics is to be believed, observing the effects of the stone upon himself.❞
—Bertrand Russell 🍎(1872—1970) Philosopher, Logician and Mathematician.

❝Although Nature needs thousands or millions of years to create a new species, man needs only a few dozen years to destroy one.❞
—Victor Scheffer 🍎(1906—2011) Biologist.

❝The man who kills the animals today is the man who kills the people who get in his way tomorrow.❞
—Dian Fossey 🍎 (1932—1985) Primatologist, Ethologist and Naturalist.

❝The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.❞
—Edmund Burke 🍎 (1729—1797) Statesman, Economist, and Philosopher.


Observer's Paradox
“In the social sciences (and physics and experimental physics), the observer's paradox is a situation in which the phenomenon being observed is unwittingly influenced by the presence of the observer/investigator.” —wikipedia
pObserver%27s_parado

Observer effect (physics)
“An especially unusual version of the observer effect occurs in quantum mechanics, as best demonstrated by the double-slit experiment. Physicists have found that observation of quantum phenomena can actually change the measured results of this experiment. Despite the observer effect in the double-slit experiment being caused by the presence of an electronic detector, the experiment's results have unfortunately been misinterpreted by some to suggest that a conscious mind can directly affect reality. The need for the observer to be conscious is not supported by scientific research, and has been pointed out as a misconception rooted in a poor understanding of the quantum wave function ψ and the quantum measurement process, apparently being the generation of information at its most basic level that produces the effect.” —wikipedia
pObserver_effect_(physics)

While the observer may influence what is observed, the observer is also the observed being influenced or reflected upon by preceding events so that a double paradox exists in which the observer is preceded by what is observed. In this sense cause and effect work both ways whereby an effect may precede its cause as equally as a cause precedes its effect. The double paradox is as two mirrors on either side of the observer, one reflecting the past and the other reflecting the relative past from the future that is influenced by the observer in the absolute present. Time is a 4-dimensional reality within a 5-dimensional hyper-reality. Events continually converge and diverge from the information composite of the past and probabilities of events consistent from the past forward in time. This structure is consistent with the standard and quantum model of the universe.

Grandfather Paradox
pGrandfather_paradox

Causality
pCausality

A Venn Diagram may be used to isolate a determinant cause, the loci of cause may be isolated otherwise by linear diagram of the flow of causation. A Euler diagram may be used to build a more complex model of events or objects involved in a causal relationship, identifying and eliminating indeterminants, anomalies, coincidences and irrelevance. Isolating what is purely not of human cause leaves only natural cause leading to a multidimensional model of reality exclusive of human existence and yet inclusive of human action and condition.

Euler Diagram
pEuler_diagram

  1. X ▬❯ Y ▬❯ Z Forward
  2. X ❮▬ Y ▬❯ Z Divergent
  3. X ▬❯ Y ❮▬ Z Convergent
  4. X ❮▬ Y ❮▬ Z Reverse

Quantum Biology May Help Solve Some of Life’s Greatest Mysteries
“But while it’s now generally accepted that tunneling occurs in biological catalysis, researchers are divided on how much it matters—and whether it might be subject to natural selection.”
https://www.the-scientist.com/features/quantum-biology-may-help-solve-some-of-lifes-greatest-mysteries-65873

Back to Top


🎓 The Living Universe

That the Earth is alive and is part of the universe, so the universe is alive in that it contains at least one living planet: Earth

    .-"""-. 
   /       \
   |       |  A possible technosignature of 
   \       /  Civilization Type 2 (solar)
    '-...-' 
   \ _   _ /   
      =_=
 Symbol of the Divine Couple. (sun in boat)
Ancient cultural composite of rise,
set and eclipsing of sun and moon.

Khufu ship
pKhufu_ship

 Combining the symbol of the Divine Couple which gives the radius and circumference of π, with the Right Angle, that is 90° of Arc, and which also defines the Pythagorean Theorem (a² + b² = c² hypotenuse), we have an effective technosignature of basic math.

A call for a methodical approach to identifying life beyond Earth
https://phys.org/news/2021-10-methodical-approach-life-earth.html

Scientists measure the atmosphere of a planet 340 light-years away
https://phys.org/news/2021-10-scientists-atmosphere-planet-light-years.html


hello world

“A Hello, World! program generally is a computer program that outputs or displays the message "Hello, World!". Such a program is very simple in most programming languages, and is often used to illustrate the basic syntax of a programming language. It is often the first program written by people learning to code. It can also be used as a sanity test to make sure that a computer language is correctly installed, and that the operator understands how to use it.” —wikipedia

main( ) {
        printf("hello, world\n");
}
Programming in C: A Tutorial 1974
__________________________
PASCAL (1970)

program HelloWorld(output);
begin
    Write('Hello, World!')
end.
__________________________
FORTRAN (1950s)

program hello
  print *, 'Hello, World!'
end program hello
__________________________
JAVASCRIPT (1993)

document.write('Hello, World!');

</aside>

Back to Top


Nucleation and Form

molecular_engine_meiosis_eukarya_planaria.png
(Fig. 84) molecular_engine_meiosis_eukarya_planaria.png
Structure of Material Bioevolution

 All living cells, and all cells that have ever lived, to the first cell, are materially connected through transcription and division of molecules as one whole, and so too are all particles in the universe connected as one whole material object. Given constant division into smaller particles between proportionally larger spaces, matter is less of substance and more the form it takes.


Protocells

The first cells might have used temperature to divide
“The slow increase of the inner temperature forces the hottest molecules to move from the inner leaflet to the outer leaflet of the bilayer. This asymmetric movement makes the outer leaflet grow faster than the inner leaflet. This differential growth increases the mean curvature and amplifies any local shrinking of the protocell until it splits in two. The cut occurs near the hottest zone, around the middle.”
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/09/210903132557.htm

Protocell
“Self-assembled vesicles are essential components of primitive cells. The second law of thermodynamics requires that the universe move in a direction in which disorder (or entropy) increases, yet life is distinguished by its great degree of organization. Therefore, a boundary is needed to separate life processes from non-living matter. The cell membrane is the only cellular structure that is found in all of the cells of all of the organisms on Earth.” —wikipedia
pProtocell


Enzymes

Enzymes
“Proteins that act as biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates, and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life. Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties.

Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types. Other biocatalysts are catalytic RNA molecules, called ribozymes. Enzymes' specificity comes from their unique three-dimensional structures. Like all catalysts, enzymes increase the reaction rate by lowering its activation energy. Some enzymes can make their conversion of substrate to product occur many millions of times faster. An extreme example is orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase, which allows a reaction that would otherwise take millions of years to occur in milliseconds.” —wikipedia"

❝We are seeing the cells of plants and animals more and more clearly as chemical factories, where the various products are manufactured in separate workshops.❞
—Eduard Buchner 🍎(1860—1917) Chemist and Zymologist


➤ A multi-enzyme platform for sequence-unlimited traceless protein synthesis
https://phys.org/news/2021-10-multi-enzyme-platform-sequence-unlimited-traceless-protein.html

Timeline of early eukaryotic evolution unveiled
https://www.irbbarcelona.org/en/news/timeline-of-early-eukaryotic-evolution-unveiled

Back to Top


The Eukaryotes

pEukaryote

Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi are sometimes grouped in the kingdom Protista.

“Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), which have no membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus, and in addition, some cells of plants and algae contain chloroplasts. Unlike unicellular archaea and bacteria, eukaryotes may also be multicellular and include organisms consisting of many cell types forming different kinds of tissue. Animals and plants are the most familiar eukaryotes.” —wikipedia

“Eukaryotes can reproduce both asexually through mitosis and sexually through meiosis and gamete fusion. The domain Eukaryota is monophyletic and makes up one of the domains of life in the three-domain system. The two other domains, Bacteria and Archaea, are prokaryotes and have none of the above features. Eukaryotes represent a tiny minority of all living things. However, due to their generally much larger size, their collective worldwide biomass is estimated to be about equal to that of prokaryotes. Eukaryotes evolved approximately 1.6–2.1 billion years ago, during the Proterozoic eon.” —wikipedia

➤ New insights into an ancient protein complex
https://phys.org/news/2021-03-insights-ancient-protein-complex.html


The mechanics of biological evolution follow from the mechanics of organic chemistry interacting with the planetary and solar system structure and composition under laws of physics in the greater cosmic environment.


Species of the Universe

Particles and waves already known to exist can pass through much smaller and larger spaces than the spaces defined by atoms or galaxies. Another universe might even pass through this one with no obvious conflict of matter, or may even be superimposed in the same temporal space. If the dimension of time is flipped from the 4rth to the first in order, then time is one point equal to the infinite, universes are continuously superimposed in the same scale, and expansion of this universe is continuous from the previous and to the next as a revolving or recursive structure. The human brain operates as a recursive structure.

Gödel's incompleteness theorem states that a system cannot explain itself. In order to completely explain any one thing, all other things would have to be explained. A mathematical model of the entirety of everything would still be lacking a boundary which would have to be explained, or otherwise if there is a finity, there must be something on the other side. In Cantor's Set Theory “A set is a Many that allows itself to be thought of as a One”, and “Some infinities are bigger than other infinites.”

cosmic_nucleation_ignition_inflation.png
(Fig. 85) cosmic_nucleation_ignition_inflation.png
Structure of Material Cosmic Evolution

The larger problem can be broken down to a smaller problem. A lottery or Bingo number generator is usually a wire cage globe full of ping pong balls seemingly generating random numbers, and given a finite space it would be possible to model each and every action of each ball, but only either as the action is happening or after the action has happened. The randomness only exists in that it is extremely unlikely to predict the numbers generated. Randomness and probability converge into a certain set of possible things, except not exact precision of prediction. In quantum mechanics some degree of exact precision is noted, but not directly observed or predictable.

Using the unpredictable nature of quantum mechanics to generate truly random numbers
https://phys.org/news/2021-01-unpredictable-nature-quantum-mechanics-random.html


❝Either mathematics is too big for the human mind or the human mind is more than a machine.❞
❝The physical laws, in their observable consequences, have a finite limit of precision.❞
❝The formation in geological time of the human body by the laws of physics (or any other laws of similar nature), starting from a random distribution of elementary particles and the field is as unlikely as the separation of the atmosphere into its components. The complexity of the living things has to be present within the material, from which they are derived, or in the laws, governing their formation.❞
—Kurt Godël 🍎(1906—1978) Logician, Mathematician, and Analytic Philosopher.

Back to Top


Physics Engineering Projects Repository

Collision models impact the future of energy
“A new database of electron-molecule reactions is a major step forward in making nuclear fusion power a reality, by allowing researchers to accurately model plasmas containing molecular hydrogen.”
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/12/201201124131.htm

Validating the physics behind the new MIT-designed fusion experiment
https://news.mit.edu/2020/physics-fusion-studies-0929

Extreme-scale computing and AI forecast a promising future for fusion power
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/03/210304145201.htm

Bottling the world's coldest plasma
“Laser-cooled plasma-in-a-bottle could answer questions about the sun, fusion power”
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/03/210301091142.htm

Inertial Confinement Fusion
“Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a type of fusion energy research that attempts to initiate nuclear fusion reactions by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium. Typical fuel pellets are about the size of a pinhead and contain around 10 milligrams of fuel. To compress and heat the fuel, energy is delivered to the outer layer of the target using high-energy beams of laser light, electrons or ions, although for a variety of reasons, almost all ICF devices as of 2015 have used lasers. The heated outer layer explodes outward, producing a reaction force against the remainder of the target, accelerating it inwards, compressing the target. This process is designed to create shock waves that travel inward through the target. A sufficiently powerful set of shock waves can compress and heat the fuel at the center so much that fusion reactions occur.” —wikipedia

Major nuclear fusion milestone reached as 'ignition' triggered in a lab
“We could also gain insights into quantum states of matter and even conditions closer and closer to the beginning of the Big Bang—the hotter we get, the closer we get to the very first state of the Universe.”
https://phys.org/news/2021-08-major-nuclear-fusion-milestone-ignition.html


“The modern theory of electromagnetism was systematized by James Clerk Maxwell in the paper On Physical Lines of Force, which was published in four parts between 1861–1862. While Maxwell's paper established a solid mathematical basis for electromagnetic theory, the detailed mechanisms of the theory were still being explored. One such question was about the details of the interaction between magnets and electric current, including whether magnetic fields interacted with the conductors or the electric current itself. In 1879 Edwin Hall was exploring this interaction, and discovered the Hall effect while he was working on his doctoral degree at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. Eighteen years before the electron was discovered, his measurements of the tiny effect produced in the apparatus he used were an experimental tour de force, published under the name "On a New Action of the Magnet on Electric Currents"” —wikipedia

❝There are many ways of knocking electrons out of atoms. The simplest is to rub two surfaces together.❞
❝Space isn't remote at all. It's only an hour's drive away if your car could go straight upwards.❞
❝There is a coherent plan in the universe, though I don't know what it's a plan for.❞
❝Things are the way they are because they were the way they were.❞
—Fred Hoyle 🍎(1915—2001) Astronomer (formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis)


Radionuclide

“A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable. This excess energy can be used in one of three ways: emitted from the nucleus as gamma radiation; transferred to one of its electrons to release it as a conversion electron; or used to create and emit a new particle ( alpha particle or beta particle) from the nucleus. During those processes, the radionuclide is said to undergo radioactive decay. These emissions are considered ionizing radiation because they are powerful enough to liberate an electron from another atom. The radioactive decay can produce a stable nuclide or will sometimes produce a new unstable radionuclide which may undergo further decay. Radioactive decay is a random process at the level of single atoms: it is impossible to predict when one particular atom will decay. However, for a collection of atoms of a single element the decay rate, and thus the half-life (t1/2) for that collection, can be calculated from their measured decay constants. The range of the half-lives of radioactive atoms has no known limits and spans a time range of over 55 orders of magnitude.” —wikipedia


➤ New Research Sheds Light on Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions
http://www.sci-news.com/physics/
neutrino-nucleus-interactions-08914.html

➤ CERN Physicists Find First Evidence for Production of Top Quarks in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions
http://www.sci-news.com/physics/production-top-quarks-nucleus-nucleus-collisions-09055.html

➤ First on-line detection of radioactive fission isotopes produced by laser-accelerated protons
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-74045-5

➤ Searching for elusive supersymmetric particles
https://phys.org/news/2021-03-elusive-supersymmetric-particles.html

➤ Invention could make particle accelerators 10 times smaller
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200924141609.htm

➤ After 20 years, physicists find a way to keep track of lost accelerator particles
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-years-physicists-track-lost-particles.html

➤ High-resolution, terahertz-driven atom probe tomography
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-high-resolution-terahertz-driven-atom-probe-tomography.html

The atom probe combines a field ion microscope with a mass spectrometer having a single particle detection capability and, for the first time, an instrument could “… determine the nature of one single atom seen on a metal surface and selected from neighboring atoms at the discretion of the observer. Atom probes are unlike conventional optical or electron microscopes, in that the magnification effect comes from the magnification provided by a highly curved electric field, rather than by the manipulation of radiation paths. The method is destructive in nature removing ions from a sample surface in order to image and identify them, generating magnifications sufficient to observe individual atoms as they are removed from the sample surface.” —wikipedia


Astrophysicists Measure Total Amount of Matter in Universe
“If all the matter in the Universe were spread out evenly across space, it would correspond to an average mass density equal to only about six hydrogen atoms per cubic meter.”
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/total-amount-matter-universe-08899.html

Einstein's description of gravity just got much harder to beat
“Despite its successes, Einstein's robust theory remains mathematically irreconcilable with quantum mechanics, the scientific understanding of the subatomic world. Testing general relativity is important because the ultimate theory of the universe must encompass both gravity and quantum mechanics.”
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201001113616.htm

New quantum theory heats up thermodynamic research
“The classical Gibbs paradox led to crucial insights for the development of early thermodynamics and emphasises the need to consider an experimenter's degree of control over a system. …could pave the way for the development of quantum heat engines.”
https://phys.org/news/2021-03-quantum-theory-thermodynamic.html

Placing cosmological constraints on quantum gravity phenomenology
“Researchers have used well-established cosmological observations to place tighter constraints on the quadratic model of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, while discrediting the linear model.”
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/02/210210133352.htm


Discrete Field Theory and Topological Quantum Field Theory

New machine learning theory raises questions about nature of science
“The resulting pixelated view of the world, akin to what is portrayed in the movie The Matrix, is known as a discrete field theory, which views the universe as composed of individual bits and differs from the theories that people normally create. While scientists typically devise overarching concepts of how the physical world behaves, computers just assemble a collection of data points.”
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/02/210212094120.htm

➤ Machine learning and serving of discrete field theories
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-76301-0

➤ Light unbound: Data limits could vanish with new optical antennas
https://phys.org/news/2021-02-unbound-limits-optical-antennas.html


Planck particle —▶ pre-neutrino —▶ Leptogenesis

➤ Astrophysicists Detect High-Energy Neutrino from Tidal Disruption Event
http://www.sci-news.com/astronomy/high-energy-neutrino-tidal-disruption-event-09386.html

Back to Top


TheHyper-Quantum Boundary
🔰 §ection III: Evolutionary Pathways

🎓 The Edge of the Infinite

                                    _____
     __    Infinite Space       _-'|     |
    |  |`-.           Vanishing;   |     |
    |  |   `.Horizon./ Point   |   |     |     
====|  |    |=======^==========|   |     |====
----|  |    |------/|\---------|   |     |----
    |  |    |     / | \        |   |     |     
----|  |    |----/  |  \-------|   |     |----
    |  |    |   /       \      |   |     |     
____|  |    ;__/    |    \_____|   |     |____
    |  |   ,  /           \    |   |     |
    |  |  .  /      |      \   `.  |     |
____|__|.'__/_______|_______\____`.|_____|____
1-point perspective                fL

❝Intellectually, perspective [drawing] is a breakthrough, because here, for the first time, the physical space we live in is being depicted as if it were an abstract, mathematical space. A less obvious innovation due to perspective is that here, for the first time, people are actually drawing pictures of infinities.❞
—Rudy Rucker 🍎(1946—) Mathematician and Computer Scientist

3D Projection
“This concept of extending 2D geometry to 3D was mastered by Heron of Alexandria in the first century. Heron could be called the father of 3D. Heron of Alexandria (c. 10 AD – c. 70 CE), was a Greek mathematician and engineer who was active in his native city of Alexandria, Roman Egypt. He is often considered the greatest experimenter of antiquity and his work is representative of the Hellenistic scientific tradition. Hero published a well-recognized description of a steam-powered device called an aeolipile (sometimes called a Hero engine). Among his most famous inventions was a windwheel, constituting the earliest instance of wind harnessing on land. He is said to have been a follower of the atomists. In his work Mechanics, he described pantographs. ” —wikipedia
p3D_projection


Transrealism: The Seed of the Transhuman Intelligence of the Singularity

“Transrealism is a literary mode that mixes the techniques of incorporating fantastic elements used in science fiction with the techniques of describing immediate perceptions from naturalistic realism. While combining the strengths of the two approaches, it is largely a reaction to their perceived weaknesses. Transrealism addresses the escapism and disconnect with reality of science fiction by providing for superior characterization through autobiographical features and simulation of the author's acquaintances. It addresses the tiredness and boundaries of realism by using fantastic elements to create new metaphors for psychological change and to incorporate the author's perception of a higher reality in which life is embedded. One possible source for this higher reality is the increasingly strange models of the universe put forward in theoretical astrophysics.” —wikipedia

∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞

“In mathematics, the infinity symbol is used more often to represent a potential infinity, rather than an actually infinite quantity as included in the extended real numbers, the ordinal numbers and the cardinal numbers. … In modern mysticism, the infinity symbol has become identified with a variation of the ouroboros, an ancient image of a snake eating its own tail that has also come to symbolize the infinite, and the ouroboros is sometimes drawn in figure-eight form.” —wikipedia

∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞∞

❝No other question has ever moved so profoundly the spirit of man; no other idea has so fruitfully stimulated his intellect; yet no other concept stands in greater need of clarification than that of the infinite.❞
❝However unapproachable these problems may seem to us and however helpless we stand before them, we have, nevertheless, the firm conviction that their solution must follow by a finite number of purely logical processes.❞
—David Hilbert 🍎(1862—1943) Logician, Mathematician, and Analytic Philosopher.

Hilbert Space

“The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space. It extends the methods of vector algebra and calculus from the two-dimensional Euclidean plane and three-dimensional space to spaces with any finite or infinite number of dimensions. A Hilbert space is a vector space equipped with an inner product, an operation that allows lengths and angles to be defined. Furthermore, Hilbert spaces are complete, which means that there are enough limits in the space to allow the techniques of calculus to be used. Hilbert spaces arise naturally and frequently in mathematics and physics, typically as infinite-dimensional function spaces. The earliest Hilbert spaces were studied from this point of view in the first decade of the 20th century by David Hilbert, Erhard Schmidt, and Frigyes Riesz. They are indispensable tools in the theories of partial differential equations, quantum mechanics, Fourier analysis (which includes applications to signal processing and heat transfer), and ergodic theory (which forms the mathematical underpinning of thermodynamics). John von Neumann coined the term Hilbert space for the abstract concept that underlies many of these diverse applications. The success of Hilbert space methods ushered in a very fruitful era for functional analysis. Apart from the classical Euclidean spaces, examples of Hilbert spaces include spaces of square-integrable functions, spaces of sequences, Sobolev spaces consisting of generalized functions, and Hardy spaces of holomorphic functions.” —wikipedia


“A set is a Many that allows itself to be thought of as a One. Some infinities are bigger than other infinities”

❝The fear of infinity is a form of myopia that destroys the possibility of seeing the actual infinite, even though it in its highest form has created and sustains us, and in its secondary transfinite forms occurs all around us and even inhabits our minds.❞
❝The potential infinite means nothing other than an undetermined, variable quantity, always remaining finite, which has to assume values that either become smaller than any finite limit no matter how small, or greater than any finite limit no matter how great.❞
❝The actual infinite arises in three contexts: first when it is realized in the most complete form, in a fully independent otherworldly being, in Deo, where I call it the Absolute Infinite or simply Absolute; second when it occurs in the contingent, created world; third when the mind grasps it in abstracto as a mathematical magnitude, number or order type.❞
❝I am so in favor of the actual infinite that instead of admitting that Nature abhors it, as is commonly said, I hold that Nature makes frequent use of it everywhere, in order to show more effectively the perfections of its Author. Thus I believe that there is no part of matter which is not - I do not say divisible - but actually divisible; and consequently the least particle ought to be considered as a world full of an infinity of different creatures.❞
❝The old and oft-repeated proposition Totum est majus sua parte [the whole is larger than the part] may be applied without proof only in the case of entities that are based upon whole and part; then and only then is it an undeniable consequence of the concepts totum and pars. Unfortunately, however, this "axiom" is used innumerably often without any basis and in neglect of the necessary distinction between reality and quantity, on the one hand, and number and set, on the other, precisely in the sense in which it is generally false.❞
❝What I assert and believe to have demonstrated in this and earlier works is that following the finite there is a transfinite (which one could also call the supra-finite), that is an unbounded ascending lader of definite modes, which by their nature are not finite but infinite, but which just like the finite can be determined by well-defined and distinguishable numbers.❞
—Georg Cantor 🍎🍎 (1845—1914) Mathematician

⚫ Continuum (set theory)
pContinuum_(set_theory)
Infinity plus one
pInfinity_plus_one
Continuum hypothesis
pContinuum_hypothesis

Back to Top


Zeno's Paradoxes

Dichotomy paradox: That which is in locomotion must arrive at the half-way stage before it arrives at the goal.
— as recounted by Aristotle, Physics VI:9, 239b10

Arrow paradox: If everything when it occupies an equal space is at rest at that instant of time, and if that which is in locomotion is always occupying such a space at any moment, the flying arrow is therefore motionless at that instant of time and at the next instant of time but if both instants of time are taken as the same instant or continuous instant of time then it is in motion.
— as recounted by Aristotle, Physics VI:9, 239b5

Quantum Zeno effect
pQuantum_Zeno_effect


“The earliest recorded idea of infinity may be that of Anaximander (c. 610 – c. 546 BC) a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher. He used the word apeiron, which means unbounded, indefinite, and perhaps can be translated as infinite.” —wikipedia

“The unexamined life is not worth living.” —Socrates c. 470–399 BCE)

“Anaximander is also a progenitor of evolution theory, deciding that humans could not have appeared on Earth in their current form. Anaximander’s reasoning was that the young of some animals can look after themselves from the time they are born. Human children, however, need to be cared for for many years. If this had always been the case, humans could not have survived. Anaximander speculated that our ancestor may have been a fish-like creature which gave birth to humans after they had reached an age when they could survive without parents to look after them. He believed the world’s first lifeforms originated in the world’s wetter environments, then spread to the drier regions.” —famousscientists.org


“Eratosthenes made several important contributions to mathematics and science, and was a friend of Archimedes. Around 255 BC, he invented the armillary sphere. In On the Circular Motions of the Celestial Bodies, Cleomedes credited him with having calculated the Earth's circumference around 240 BC, with a high precision.” —wikipedia
erathosthenes_pangea.jpg
(Fig. 86) erathosthenes_pangea.jpg

“Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras. It assembled from earlier continental units approximately 335 million years ago, and it began to break apart about 175 million years ago. In contrast to the present Earth and its distribution of continental mass, Pangaea was centred on the Equator and surrounded by the superocean Panthalassa. Pangaea is the most recent supercontinent to have existed and the first to be reconstructed by geologists.” —wikipedia


These first technical achievements in Cosmology defined space of the universe as infinite and space of the Earth as finite and formed as a ball in space. Erathosthenes' map of the world is interestingly similar to the Pangea supercontinent, theorized 2000 years later, and demonstrating consistencies in form between physical geology and cosmology. The earliest period of Earth's geological formation as well as the earliest period of evolution of life are yet mostly unknowns, but resolving both mysteries is likely not impossible with increased scientific tooling and intensity of research. As the ancients demonstrated, things which seemingly are impossible to know can potentially be discovered by different applications of intelligence and point of view.


“Give me a lever long enough and a fulcrum on which to place it, and I shall move the world. ”

❝Many people believe that the grains of sand are infinite in multitude … Others think that although their number is not without limit, no number can ever be named which will be greater than the number of grains of sand. But I shall try to prove to you that among the numbers which I have named there are those which exceed the number of grains in a heap of sand the size not only of the earth, but even of the universe❞
❝Equal weights at equal distances are in equilibrium and equal weights at unequal distances are not in equilibrium but incline towards the weight which is at the greater distance.❞
❝It follows at once from the last proposition that the centre of gravity of any triangle is at the intersection of the lines drawn from any two angles to the middle points of the opposite sides respectively.❞
❝Any solid lighter than a fluid will, if placed in the fluid, be so far immersed that the weight of the solid will be equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. On floating bodies I, prop 5.
❝The centre of gravity of any cylinder is the point of bisection of the axis.❞
❝The diameter of the earth is greater than the diameter of the moon and the diameter of the sun is greater than the diameter of the earth.❞
—Archimedes 🍎🍎 (287—212 BCE) Mathematician, Physicist, Engineer, Astronomer

Back to Top


🎓 Infinite Inhospitability

jellyfish_cosmic_background_galaxy_corona_nuclear_implosion_asteroid.jpg
(Fig. 87) jellyfish_cosmic_
background_galaxy_
corona_nuclear_
implosion_asteroid.jpg

Fast Radio Bursts have begun to be detected in the same time that Gravitational Waves are being detected, opening a new window to the magnetic, radio and gravitational activity of the universe. In between and across massive spaces, matter and energy are found to exist in proportions and dynamics that would make most of the universe inhospitable to life. None of the solar systems close enough to be studied indicate similarity to the configuration of conditions which originated life on Earth. The more the universe is explored, the more this solar system is mysteriously highly specialized — a multifactoral product of nature requiring very high precision of evolutionary events.

One could speculate the FRBs are the rate of either destruction of, or unlikeliness of, civilizations equivalent to this one. Only one has been detected in the Milky Way, and up to 10,000 of these point-source bursts are estimated to happen every day acrosss 2 trillion galaxies. At such distances, their incoming energy level is negligible, but at their source the energy level is equivalent to solar or magnetar detonation and possibly collapse into black holes.

neutron_star.jpg
(Fig. 88)
neutron_star.jpg

The threat of ionizing radiation is all around the Earth, everywhere on Earth and from within the Earth. The fact that Earth's biosphere is shielded from most ionizing radiation is itself an extremely fortunate condition. The current level of science and technology is only precariously balanced against the raw powers of nature. Extinction and organic chemical events which determined evolution to the human being are highly specific and improbably equivalently in as many other solar systems that are found. If the dinosaurs hadn't gone extinct when and as they did, the Earth may not have evolved higher primates.

➤ Physicists Measure Neutron Lifetime with Unprecedented Precision
http://www.sci-news.com/physics/neutron-lifetime-10167.html

Neutron star collisions are 'goldmine' of heavy elements, study finds
“In the last 2.5 billion years, more heavy metals were produced in binary neutron star mergers, or collisions between two neutron stars, than in mergers between a neutron star and a black hole.”
https://phys.org/news/2021-10-neutron-star-collisions-goldmine-heavy.html


Atomic Chemical Theory

The result of the Curies' work was epoch-making. Radium's radioactivity was so great that it could not be ignored. It seemed to contradict the principle of the conservation of energy and therefore forced a reconsideration of the foundations of physics. On the experimental level the discovery of radium provided men like Ernest Rutherford with sources of radioactivity with which they could probe the structure of the atom. As a result of Rutherford's experiments with alpha radiation, the nuclear atom was first postulated.
—L. Pearce Williams

The greatest scientific deed of her life—proving the existence of radioactive elements and isolating them—owes its accomplishment not merely to bold intuition but to a devotion and tenacity in execution under the most extreme hardships imaginable, such as the history of experimental science has not often witnessed.
—Albert Einstein

❝It was necessary at this point to find a new term to define this new property of matter manifested by the elements of uranium and thorium. I proposed the word radioactivity which has since become generally adopted; the radioactive elements have been called radio elements.❞
❝The sensitive plate, the gas which is ionised, the fluorescent screen, are in reality receivers, into another kind of energy, chemical energy, ionic energy... luminous energy.❞
—Marie Curie 🍎 (1867—1934) Physicist and Chemist


Quantum Chemistry

On the tiniest of scales, chemistry isn't all about 'billiard-ball' reactions
“The new study concerns roaming, in which photodissociation breaks a molecule into pieces, but the pieces come back and react with each other. Until now, billiard ball models could completely match such experiments. … Instead, they have to use a more complicated quantum model to confirm the unusual properties they are observing.”
https://phys.org/news/2022-01-tiniest-scales-chemistry-isnt-billiard-ball.html


hydrogen_molecular_quantum_mechanics.png
(Fig. 89)
hydrogen_molecular_
quantum_mechanics.png

We might think of some hydrogen atoms as like a bowl of grapes where the seed is the proton and the fruit is the electron cloud. Without any chemical bonding each atom is snugged-up to the others maintaining an electrostatic pressure. If the electrons meet in the atomic space they may exchange a brief moment of information transfer and then continue on their way intact to their home proton. The least amount of information they may exchange is simply their co-existence momentarily in a juxtaposed (not superimposed) position. Potentially, quantum mechanics unified with classical physics leads not only to a new physics, but an entirely new construct of material function of nature, providing strange new arrangements between particles and molecules in applied engineering technology.


Graphene: “Graphene a semimetal with unusual electronic properties that are best described by theories for massless relativistic particles… the material exhibits large quantum oscillations and large and nonlinear diamagnetism. … Graphene has become a valuable and useful nanomaterial due to its exceptionally high tensile strength, electrical conductivity, transparency, and being the thinnest two-dimensional material in the world. Graphene conducts heat and electricity very efficiently along its plane.” —wikipedia

Quantum Chronobiology
phototropic_rhythm.png
(Fig. 90)
phototropic_rhythm.png

Timing precision is most of the standard physical model to the origin of the universe, and as well, the living system is structured according to timing sequences followed precisely. Remove all chaos and randomness and the universe is a gigantic timed sequence of a multitude of events. Each point in spacetime and each object have their place in the motion picture sequence and follow a script that is both made and being made simultaneously. Most of the focus of quantum mechanics is on information transformation and transmission as classical physics can mostly explain everything reasonably up to questions of initial causation of events. According to human knowledge yet today, the universe may as well just have 'magically' spontaneously popped into existence. Such is the same sense as the constant of time, with the constant of light being a particle event of photons in a particular sequence and frequency.


➤ A new spin on atoms gives scientists a closer look at quantum weirdness
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201030132808.htm

 ❏ Biological Motility, Tropism, Cell Migration, Hormones

  • Aerotropism, growth of plants towards or away from a source of oxygen
  • Chemotropism, movement or growth in response to chemicals
  • Electrotropism, movement or growth in response to an electric field
  • Exotropism, continuation of growth "outward," i.e. in the previously established direction
  • Geotropism (or gravitropism), movement or growth in response to gravity
  • Hygrotropism, movement or growth in response to moisture or humidity
  • Magnetotropism, movement or growth in response to magnetic fields
  • Orthotropism, movement or growth in the same line of action as the stimulus
  • Phototropism, movement or growth in response to lights or colors of light
  • Selenotropism, motion of plant parts in response to the direction of the moon
  • Thermotropism, movement or growth in response to temperature

⚫ Tropism
pTropism
Cell Migration
pCell_migration
Hormone
pHormone

Pheromone
“A secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species. Pheromones are chemicals capable of acting like hormones outside the body of the secreting individual, to impact the behavior of the receiving individuals. There are alarm pheromones, food trail pheromones, sex pheromones, and many others that affect behavior or physiology. Pheromones are used by many organisms, from basic unicellular prokaryotes to complex multicellular eukaryotes. Their use among insects has been particularly well documented. In addition, some vertebrates, plants and ciliates communicate by using pheromones.” —wikipedia
pPheromone

Back to Top


🎓 The Adiabatic Theorem

adiabatic_process_learning.png
(Fig. 91) adiabatic_process_learning.png

“A quantum mechanical system subjected to gradually changing external conditions adapts its functional form, but when subjected to rapidly varying conditions there is insufficient time for the functional form to adapt, so the spatial probability density remains unchanged. Naturally occurring adiabatic processes are irreversible (entropy is produced).” —wikipedia

difference_natural_mechanical_construction.jpg
(Fig. 92) difference_natural_
mechanical_construction.jpg

Many of the critical components of Quantum Theory are not arbitrary as they are valid in logic and may be experimented with but are at best abstract, and at least plausibly imaginary. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Schrödinger's equation can be considered to say more about human mental functions than actual nature, except that human mental functions, whether distorted or not, exist in actual nature. Mathematics is somewhat the balance of mental health in that higher math can breakdown the difference between a rational construct and complete nonsense. Engineering math requires far higher precision than theoretical science math.

adiabatic_forward_reverse_equilibrium.png
(Fig. 93) adiabatic_forward_reverse_equilibrium.png

Einstein's spacetime isn't something that's 'out there' across large distances and accelerations of mass and photons bending around objects; it is the structure of spacetime we exist in, evidenced even to the edge of a black hole. Relativistic effects permeate all space. The uncertainty principle, the observer effect, and time dilation between observation points, are each a different manifestation of the same structure of space, adding a 5th dimension. The Adiabatic Process in a looped system is similar to Quantum Tunneling in that some of the standard restrictions of thermodynamics are displaced and energy barriers are breached and wherein entropy may be anisotropically utilized as an engine with almost no energy loss which in spacetime may be a contained system outside of spacetime.

Back to Top


🎓 Decline of Sexual Dimorphism

chromosomes.jpg
(Fig. 94) chromosomes - Telomeres.jpg
Comparative to the Apical Meristem

The decline of sexual dimorphism in humans is less expressed in the somatic structure as it is in sex-cell structure, but becomes more evident in androgenization and transposition. As the Y chromosome declines it is not the male that is reducing in dimorphic function, but rather the female, which indicates extinction level process of the human species following the same decline as extinct hominids before. The exponential factor is the sustained and increased dysfunction of human development which will likey lead to major sociobiological warfare as the species attempts to rebalance its chromatic integrity as a higher evolved dimorphic mammal species. All hominids have exhibited similar difficulty sustaining functional dimorphism, and have gone extinct progressively in shorter periods of time. At only 200,000 years old, the human species is already presenting terminal damage to its developmental health and natural environment.

chromosomes.jpg
(Fig. 95) bottleneck_event.png

The Y chromosome is the adaptive advantage of the species, regenerating modification to the genome as required to maximize adaptive response — maintaining speciation. Eugenicists come in many varieties, but the current level of knowledge of the language of genetics is crude; humans know where the parts are, but they don't know the machinery. Humans reproduce by simian copulation that usually involves the displacement of a competitor to the sign stimulus of estrous. The simian sexual behavior of the homo-sapien continuously degrades the quality of the Y chromosome specific to the homo-sapien which would normally increase human adaptive developmental responses.


➤ Human sperm mutations that can cause disease in children identified
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-08-human-sperm-mutations-disease-children.html

➤ Study explores the influence of the X-chromosome on brain anatomy
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-09-explores-x-chromosome-brain-anatomy.html

➤ Imperfect egg cells more common than originally thought
https://www.azolifesciences.com/news/20201216/
Imperfect-egg-cells-more-common-than-originally-thought.aspx

 ❏ Genotype and Phenotype

“The differentiation of our sex organs takes place in the first months of pregnancy, while the sexual differentiation of the brain occurs in the second half of pregnancy. Since these two processes take place at different times, the theory is that in the case of transsexuality, they have been influenced independently of one another.”
“Children who are seriously neglected during their early development also have smaller brains; their intelligence and linguistic and fine motor control are permanently impaired, and they are impulsive and hyperactive.”
― D.F. Swaab, We Are Our Brains: A Neurobiography of the Brain, from the Womb to Alzheimer's

Intersex: Most animal species (~95%, including humans) are gonochoric, in which individuals are of either a female or male sex. Hermaphroditic species (some animals and most flowering plants) are represented by individuals that can express both sexes simultaneously or sequentially across their lifetime. Intersex individuals in a number of gonochoric species, who express both female and male phenotypic characters to some degree, are known to exist at very low prevalences.


⚫ Y chromosome
“The influence of hormones on the developing fetus has been the most influential causal hypothesis of the development of sexual orientation. In simple terms, the developing fetal brain begins in a female typical state. The presence of the Y-chromosome in males prompts the development of testes, which release testosterone, the primary androgen receptor-activating hormone, to masculinize the fetus and fetal brain.” —wikipedia
pY_chromosome

➤ Study shows female frogs susceptible to 'decoy effect'
Mediocrity in sexual selection
https://phys.org/news/2015-08-female-frogs-susceptible-decoy-effect.html

➤ Study reveals new clues about the architecture of X chromosomes
https://phys.org/news/2021-03-reveals-clues-architecture-chromosomes.html

➤ Extinction of chromosomes due to specialization is a universal occurrence
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-58997-2

➤ Human male infertility, the Y chromosome, and dinosaur extinction
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1110569011000033

Sexual Dimorphism
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/sexual-dimorphism


⚫ Phylogenetic tree
pPhylogenetic_tree

⚫ Evolutionary taxonomy
p Evolutionary_taxonomy

⚫ Geologic time scale
p Geologic_time_scale


Hypothetical Primary Momentum of Bioevolution
From origin of cells to division of sex cells
                                                                     Cenozoic Era 
Stellar Nebula                                            Mesozoic Era          ▲
Nucleosynthesis         Flagellates        Cambrian Explosion          ▲          |
Organic        rRNA     Protozoa                            ▲        |         |    Biodiversity
Macromolecules Viruses  Eukaryota mDNA  Animal Evolution —▶ Constant of sexual     —▶ and Sexual
    Procaryota Bacteria Archaea                             dimorphic divergence    Dimorphic 
       Single  Cell                                         ▼        |         |    Collapse
                                          Marinoan Glaciation          ▼          |   6th Mass
                                                               Mammals          ▼   Extinction 
                                                                           Humans     

Aristotle (384–322 BCE) observed that fossils of seashells in rocks resembled those found on beaches – he inferred that the fossils in rocks were formed by organisms, and he reasoned that the positions of land and sea had changed over long periods of time. Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) concurred with Aristotle's interpretation that fossils represented the remains of ancient life.” —wikipedia

Back to Top


🎓 Decline of Biodiversity

The ozone layer is oscillating and fluctuating across and in depth and concentration over the globe. Earth was oxygenated about 2 billion years ago and UV radiation absorbing ozone formed about 600 million years ago allowing evolution to proceed onto the land. The conflicting evaluations of the ozone layer lead more to a discomforting model considering how sensitive the chemistry of ozone is in the whole context of biospherical and solar-radio-magnetic powers. Ozone is like human skin, very sensitive and easily injured, and it is as like the skin of the biosphere. Ozone depletion would be the greatest threat to all life on land and most life in the ocean.

biodiversity_decline.png
(Fig. 96) biodiversity_decline.png

There is apparently a connection between the decline of the human genome and conditions graduating to depletion of the ozone layer — otherwise the decline of biodiversity as a multifactoral event. The biosphere as a whole is declining and the human mind and behavior are nothing above or beyond the same overall decline. Humans may simply be instruments in the greatest mass extinction ever that will knock down evolved life to some anaerobic bacteria. Or at least some humans will exhibit sovereignty of mind and self-control of behavior, but statistically, not likely very many and probably less than 2%.

The biosphere layer of Earth is a very thin composition of chemicals undergoing reactions sustaining a living system puny compared to the astrophysical forces operating around and within the planet. Gravitational and electromagnetic events common in the universe could easily wipe the slate of bioevolution clear, or even render the planet immediately and forever sterile. These are the proportions of reality of human existence.


Ozone Depletion

➤ Ozone layer collapse preceded mass extinction 360 million years ago
https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2020/05/27/Ozone-layer-collapse-preceded-mass-extinction-360-million-years-ago/8421590602620

➤ Study predicts the oceans will start emitting ozone-depleting CFCs
“The world's oceans are a vast repository for gases including ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs. They absorb these gases from the atmosphere and draw them down to the deep, where they can remain sequestered for centuries and more.”
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/03/210315160722.htm

➤ Sources of new ozone-damaging HCFCs traced back to origins
https://phys.org/news/2021-01-sources-ozone-damaging-hcfcs.html

➤ Rising greenhouse gases threaten Arctic ozone layer
https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2021/06/23/arctic-ozone-greenhouse-gases-study/7481624458932/

➤ The ozone hole over the South Pole is now bigger than Antarctic
https://www.newscientist.com/article/2290435-the-ozone-hole-over-the-south-pole-is-now-bigger-than-antarctica/

➤ Under the northern lights: Mesospheric ozone layer depletion explained
https://phys.org/news/2021-08-northern-mesospheric-ozone-layer-depletion.html


➤ Global environmental changes leading to shorter, younger trees
https://phys.org/news/2020-05-global-environmental-shorter-younger-trees.html

➤ Mass Extinctions Are Accelerating, Scientists Report
https://www.nytimes.com/2020/06/01/science/mass-extinctions-are-accelerating-scientists-report.html

➤ Will climate change outpace species adaptation?
Species evolve heat tolerance more slowly than cold tolerance
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/03/210304133457.htm

➤ Rising global temperatures tied to rising antibiotic resistance
https://phys.org/news/2020-11-global-temperatures-tied-antibiotic-resistance.html

➤ One-fifth of ecosystems in danger of collapse – here's what that might look like
https://phys.org/news/2020-11-one-fifth-ecosystems-danger-collapse.html

Back to Top


🎓 Planetary Bioevolution

⚫ Transit of Earth
pTransit_of_Earth_from_Mars


    .-"""-. Sol    
   /       \Gravitational Lock   
   | Terra |            Luna  
   \    O  /  Tidal Lock  o 
    '-...-'

❝In all chaos there is a cosmos, in all disorder a secret order.❞
—Carl Jung 🍎 (1875—1961) Psychiatrist and Anthropologist.


Exobiology
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/exobiology

ASTROBIOLOGY @ NASA ➔ Exobiology
• Planetary Conditions for Life:
• Prebiotic Evolution:
• Early Evolution of Life and the Biosphere:
• Evolution of Advanced Life:
https://astrobiology.nasa.gov/research/astrobiology-at-nasa/exobiology/


Particles are illusions; Quantized waves are realities

“The types of waves most commonly studied in classical physics are mechanical and electromagnetic. In a mechanical wave, stress and strain fields oscillate about a mechanical equilibrium. A mechanical wave is a local deformation (strain) in some physical medium that propagates from particle to particle by creating local stresses that cause strain in neighboring particles too. In an electromagnetic wave (such as light), coupling between the electric and magnetic fields which sustains propagation of a wave involving these fields according to Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic waves can travel through a vacuum and through some dielectric media (at wavelengths where they are considered transparent). Mechanical and electromagnetic waves transfer energy, momentum, and information, but they do not transfer particles in the medium.” —wikipedia

Branched Flow: “Refers to a phenomenon in wave dynamics, that produces a tree-like pattern involving successive mostly forward scattering events by smooth obstacles deflecting traveling rays or waves. Sudden and significant momentum or wavevector changes are absent, but accumulated small changes can lead to large momentum changes. The path of a single ray is less important than the environs around a ray, which rotate, compress, and stretch around in an area preserving way. … Waves have analogous launching conditions, such as a point source spraying in many directions, or an extended plane wave heading on one direction. The ray bending or refraction leads to characteristic structure in phase space and nonuniform distributions in coordinate space that look somehow universal and resemble branches in trees or stream beds.” —wikipedia


The magnitude of properties and parameters of quantum physics not only makes human engineering of interplanetary and interstellar spaceflight machines better than plausible, their structure and massive complexity of materials, machined parts, propulsion, guidance and landing systems, and overall operation in real nature is a mechanical pathway of biological evolution, otherwise the universe doesn't either exist or a human would not have a brain advanced from an ape.

Graviton-Photon Interaction
https://journals.aps.org/pr/abstract/10.1103/PhysRev.128.2414

“Gravitons are thought to carry the force of gravity in a way that’s similar to how photons carry the electromagnetic force. Just as light rays can be pictured as a well-behaved collection of photons, gravitational waves — ripples in space-time created by violent cosmic processes — are thought to be made up of gravitons.” —quantamagazine

Wave-Particle Duality

Wave–particle Duality
pWave%E2%80%93particle_duality
In 1901, Max Planck published an analysis that succeeded in reproducing the observed spectrum of light emitted by a glowing object. To accomplish this, Planck had to make a mathematical assumption of quantized energy of the oscillators, i.e. atoms of the black body that emit radiation. Einstein later proposed that electromagnetic radiation itself is quantized, not the energy of radiating atoms.

❝The electron can no longer be conceived as a single, small granule of electricity; it must be associated with a wave, and this wave is no myth; its wavelength can be measured and its interferences predicted